Xeroderma Pigmentosum
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  Xeroderma Pigmentosum



Xeroderma Pigmentosum

   An inherited disorder that causes extreme sensitivity to sunlight and early onset of skin cancers, including basal and squamous cell and melanoma. Patients are also at risk for cancers of the brain, lung, stomach, tongue, and melanoma of the eye, and leukemia.

RELATED TERMS
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Sensitivity
1. The reciprocal of the minimum stimulus strength required for the stimulus to be detected reliably (1/threshold) May be related to noise and other mechanisms. 2. Physiologically measured sensitivity averaged over many stimulus/response cycles. A measure of gain. Noise free.

Skin
Skin is an organ of the integumentary system; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. Skin is used for insulation, vitamin D production, sensation, and excretion (through sweat).

Cell
Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

Melanoma
The most dangerous of all skin cancers, melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of pigment-producing tanning cells (melanocytes). If detected in the early stages, melanoma can often be treated successfully, but in the later stages it spreads to other organs and can result in death.

Risk
In clinical trials, the probability of harm or discomfort for subjects, arising from the test product. Acceptable risk differs depending on the condition for which a product is being tested. A product for sore throat, for example, will be expected to have a low incidence of side effects. However, unpleasant side effects may be an acceptable risk when testing a promising treatment for a life-threatening illness.

Brain
"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "

Stomach
The organ between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach is where digestion of protein begins.

Tongue
The muscular organ attached to the floor of the mouth. Used to speak, chew, swallow and taste.

Eye
The organ of sight. The eye has a number of components. These components include but are not limited to the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, macula, optic nerve, choroid and vitreous.

Leukemia
Cancer of white blood cells. Acute leukemias are characterized by the presence of "blasts," which are immature white blood cells. Large quantities of blasts generally overgrow the bone marrow, leaving very little space for normal bone marrow cells. This type generally requires immediate treatment. Chronic leukemias are those characterized by a large and uncontrolled growth of more mature white blood cells. These types of leukemias tend not to progress as rapidly, and treatment is often milder than that of acute leukemias.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Xeroderma
Dryness of the skin.

Xerostomia
Dry mouth or decrease in the production of saliva .



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Xanthoma
Fairly common on the eyelids, xanthomas -yellow, soft and slightly raised non-contagious bumps made of cholesterol deposits- are a sign of elevated cholesterol levels.

X-ray
Electromagnetic energy used to produce images of bones and internal organs onto film.

Xeroderma Pigmentosum

XYY Syndrome
Genetic condition in males with extra Y chromosome (1 in 1000 male births). XYY syndrome' s symptoms are: extreme tall stature, may include sterility, developmental delay and learning problems.

Xanax
This is a prescription drug used to treat anxiety. It is a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore have a negative impact on coordination and mental alertness. Side effects typically include drowsiness and/or mood changes.

Xerostomia
Dry mouth or decrease in the production of saliva .

X inactivation
Normal inactivation of one of the two X chromosomes in females.

X chromosome
One of the two sex chromosomes, the other being the Y chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes, and males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.

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