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   A class of carbohydrates that taste sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.


A type of food, usually derived from plants; one of three nutrients that supply calories to the body; includes simple carbohydrates (sugar, fruit) and complex carbohydrates (vegetables, starches).

A class of carbohydrates that taste sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.

The sugar found in milk. The body breaks lactose down into galactose and glucose.

The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.

Fruit sugar.

A natural sugar obtained from sugar cane and sugar beets used as a sweetening agent. Also called table sugar.


Sugar Land Medical Center
The Sugar Land Medical Center is a hospital in Sugar Land, Texas, United States.


Spilling Point
When the blood is holding so much of a substance such as glucose (sugar) that the kidneys allow the excess to spill into the urine.

Split Dose
Division of a prescribed daily dose of insulin into two or more injections given over the course of a day. Also may be referred to as multiple injections. Many people who use insulin feel that split doses offer more consistent control over blood glucose (sugar) levels.

Stiff Hand Syndrome
Thickening of the skin of the palm that results in loss of ability to hold hand straight. This condition occurs only in people with diabetes.

Subclinical Diabetes
A term no longer used.

Subcutaneous Injection
Putting a fluid into the tissue under the skin with a needle and syringe. See also: Injection.


One of several different classes of pills that lower the level of glucose in the blood. Used in Type 2 diabetes. |There are several sulfonylurea pills available. Four, known as "first-generation" drugs, have been in use for some time. Three types, called "second-generation" drugs, have been developed recently. They are sometimes stronger than first-generation drugs and have fewer side effects. Each type of pill is sold under two names: one is the generic name as listed by the US Food and Drug Administration; the other is the trade name given by the manufacturer. They are:

A device used to inject medications or other liquids into body tissues. The syringe for insulin has a hollow plastic or glass tube (barrel) with a plunger inside. The plunger forces the insulin through the needle into the body. Most insulin syringes now come with a needle attached. The side of the syringe has markings to show how much insulin is being injected.

Scaling and root planing is usually performed after the dentist has diagnosed some periodontal disease. Scaling and root planing involves removal of the sticky plaque and tartar that builds up on teeth. The procedure may be performed under local anesthetic with an ultrasonic scaler, which can reach below the gum line and into the effective pocket to remove bacteria and the toxins they release. After this procedure, the dentist or hygienist will plane the root surface thereby allowing the gum to reattach to the tooth. Depending on the severity of the case, scaling and root planing may not cure the affected pockets and further periodontal treatment may be needed.

Saphenous Vein
Vein located in the leg(s) and used for coronary artery bypass surgery. It is surgically removed from the leg and sewn from the aorta to the coronary artery beyond the site of blockage.

Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure of the pulmonary arteries. Secondary hypertension is a disease process which reduces the blood supply to the lungs such as a blood clot (pulmonary emboli).

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