Macrophage
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  Macrophage



Macrophage

    A large phagocytic cell of the mononuclear series found within tissues. Properties include phagocytosis, and antigen presentation to T cells.

RELATED TERMS
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Cell
Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

Phagocytosis
The engulfment of a particle or a microorganism by leukocytes.

Antigen
A substance which, when present in animal tissue, stimulates the production of antibodies



SIMILAR TERMS
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Macrobid
Macrobid is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): nitrofurantoin; nitrofurantoin, macrocrystalline.

Macrodantin
Macrodantin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): nitrofurantoin, macrocrystalline.

Macrolide
A group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, are attached. The lactone ring can be either 14, 15 or 16-membered. Macrolides belong to the polyketide class of natural products.

Macronutrient
Any food that contains calories and, therefore, can generate hormonal responses. Protein, carbohydrate, and fat are macronutrients.

Macrophage-activating factor (MAF)
Actually several lymphokines, including interferon, released by activated T cells, which together induce activation of macrophages, making them more efficient in phagocytosis and cytotoxicity.

Macropsia
The visual perception that objects are larger than they actually are.

Macrosomia
Abnormally large; in diabetes, refers to abnormally large babies that may be born to women with diabetes.

Macrotec
Macrotec is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m albumin aggregated kit.

Macrovascular Disease
A disease of the large blood vessels that sometimes occurs when a person has had diabetes for a long time. Fat and blood clots build up in the large blood vessels and stick to the vessel walls. Three kinds of macrovascular disease are coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Mydriatic
A drug that dilates the pupil (see cycloplegia). Sometimes used to treat amblyopia, particularly if the child will not wear an eye patch over the stronger eye.

Mayo Clinic
The Mayo Clinic is a world-renowned medical practice operated by the Mayo Foundation, a not-for-profit organization based in Rochester, Minnesota. The first and largest facilities of the Mayo Clinic are also located in Rochester, but it also runs additional hospitals in Jacksonville, Florida and Scottsdale, Arizona. In addition, the Mayo Foundation operates a number of smaller clinics and hospitals in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin.

Mayo Clinic diet
A nutritional diet developed by the prestigious Mayo Clinic.

Mammography
An X-ray procedure using a special low irradiation technique to detect abnormal change in breast tissue. Its main use is to detect breast lumps that are too small to be found during breast self examination or physical examination. The higher the level of estrogen (and possibly progestin) the more dense breast tissue is and the less likely that a mammogram will see abnormal tissue. It has many false positive readings meaning that there is no cancer yet the test was abnormal.

Motor neuron disease
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis there is involvment of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy, the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation.

Macrophage

Macrophage-activating factor (MAF)
Actually several lymphokines, including interferon, released by activated T cells, which together induce activation of macrophages, making them more efficient in phagocytosis and cytotoxicity.

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
A cluster of genes on chromosome 6 in humans, encoding cell surface molecules that are polymorphic and that code for antigens which lead to rapid graft rejection between members of a single species which differ at these loci. Several classes of protein such as MHC class I and II proteins are encoded in this region. These in humans, are known as 'Human leukocyte antigens' (HLA).

Mast cell
Tissue located cell probably derived from basophils. Possesses receptor for Fc of IgE. Participates in 'Immediate hypersensitivity' reactions.

Memory
In the immune system, memory denotes an active state of immunity to a specific antigen, such that a second encounter with that antigen leads to a larger and more rapid response.

MHC class I molecule
A molecule encoded to genes of the MHC which participates in antigen presentation to cytotoxic T (CD8+) cells.

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