IAP Element
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  IAP Element



IAP Element

   Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. (""Intracisternal"" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.

RELATED TERMS
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Genes
Basic, functional units of heredity, each occupying a specific place on a chromosome.

Elements
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.

Family
1. A group of individuals related by blood or marriage or by a feeling of closeness. 2. A biological classification of related plants or animals that is a division below the order and above the genus. 3. A group of genes related in structure and in function that descended from an ancestral gene. 4. A group of gene products similarly related in structure and function and of shared genetic descent. 5. Parents and their children. The most fundamental social group in humans.

Genetic
Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.

Code
The genetic code is the correspondence between the triplet of bases in DNA with the amino acids.

Embryos
The prenatal stage of mammalian development characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures.

Colon
Another name for the large intestine. The section of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum. An adult colon is approximately five to six feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and forming, storing and expelling waste.



SIMILAR TERMS
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IAP Elements
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. (""Intracisternal"" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.

IAP Pertussis Toxin
Any of various biologically active proteins or toxins elaborated by Bordetella pertussis that cause the symptoms of whooping cough. Some activate pancreatic islets, others inhibit the adenylate cyclase cascade and some cause lymphocytosis.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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IIIs, Mucolipidosis
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. Mental retardation and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)

ICYP
A highly selective and specific beta antagonist that is used to characterize beta-adrenoceptors.

IgA, Secretory
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULINS, J-CHAIN).

ICRF187
An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties. Dexrazoxane, the (+)-enantiomorph of razoxane, provides cardioprotection against anthracyline toxicity. It appears to inhibit formation of a toxic iron-anthracyline complex.

Ichthyosis, Sex Linked
Chronic form of ichthyosis that is inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait carried on the X-chromosome and transmitted to the male offspring. It is characterized by severe scaling, especially on the extremities, and is associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency.

IAP Element

IL 13
T-lymphocyte-derived cytokine that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-lymphocytes. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.

IL 2 Receptor
Receptors present on activated T- and B-cells as a complex consisting of a 55 kD peptide, which reacts with the anti-Tac monoclonal antibody, and a 75 kD non-Tac interleukin-2-binding peptide. The receptor is present in two forms, one with a very high affinity and the other with low affinity for IL-2. The high-affinity form appears to mediate exclusively the growth-promoting response to IL-2. The receptor is present in large numbers on resting HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 leukemia cells, but not on normal resting cells.

IL 12
A heterodimeric cytokine that stimulates the production of interferon gamma from T-cells and natural killer cells, and also induces differentiation of Th1 helper cells. It is an initiator of cell-mediated immunity.

IL 1 Receptors
Specific molecular sites or structures on cells with which interleukin-1 reacts or to which it binds to modify the function of the cells. The IL-1 receptor on T-lymphocytes and fibroblasts is composed of a single polypeptide chain that binds both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is believed to be 80 kD.

IL 3 Receptor
Phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, MW 140 kD. They form a stable complex with INTERLEUKIN-3 with an apparent mass of 170 kD. They are found on a variety of cells and activate INTERLEUKIN-3.

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