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  Hormone



Hormone

    A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

RELATED TERMS
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Affect
This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

Thyroid
The gland in the throat that synthesizes thyroid hormones that affect metabolism.

Hormone
A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

Gland
An organ that releases a chemical. Endocrine glands are ductless and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands secrete externally, either through a tube or duct.

Affects
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Hormonal Agents, Antineoplastic
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)

Hormonal Antineoplastic Agents
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)

Hormonal Antineoplastic Drugs
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)

Hormonal Antineoplastics
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)

Hormonal cyclicity
Regularly recurrent changes in the level of one or more hormones secreted into the bloodstream, for example, the changes in pituitary and ovarian hormones in synchrony with the menstrual cycle in women.

Hormonal Drugs, Antineoplastic
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)

Hormonal Oral Contraceptive Agents
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.

Hormonal Oral Contraceptives
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.

Hormonalize
To change or shape by means of a hormone the outcome of development, for example as masculine or feminine, as manifested somatically or behaviorally.

Hormone Analogs
Synthetic chemical compounds that mimic the activity of hormones produced in the body, but differ in structure from naturally occurring hormones.

Hormone Analogs, Progestational
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that possess progestational activity, but differ in structure from naturally occurring progestational hormones.

Hormone Analogues
Synthetic chemical compounds that mimic the activity of hormones produced in the body, but differ in structure from naturally occurring hormones.

Hormone Analogues, Progestational
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that possess progestational activity, but differ in structure from naturally occurring progestational hormones.

Hormone Antagonists
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.

Hormone Dependent Neoplasms
Certain tumors that 1) arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2) are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.

Hormone Receptor, Adrenocorticotropic
Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.

Hormone Receptor, Follicle-Stimulating
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Hormone Receptor, Gastrointestinal
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Hormone Receptor, Gonadotropin-Releasing
Receptors with a 6-kD protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LH or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LHRH binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LH or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.

Hormone Receptor, Growth
Cell surface proteins that bind somatotropin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.

Hormone Receptor, Intestinal
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Hormone Receptor, Luteinizing
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.

Hormone Receptor, Pancreatic
Cell surface proteins that bind pancreatic hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. These include receptors for glucagon (secreted by alpha cells), insulin (secreted by beta cells), somatostatin (secreted by delta cells), and pancreatic peptide (secreted by PP cells). Some of these hormones and receptors also support neurotransmission.

Hormone Receptor, Peptide
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.

Hormone Receptors, Adrenocorticotropic
Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.

Hormone Receptors, Cell Surface
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.

Hormone Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.

Hormone Receptors, Cytoplasmic
Proteins in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind signaling molecules and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. The major groups are the steroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, STEROID), which usually are found in the cytoplasm, and the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE), which usually are found in the nucleus. Receptors, unlike enzymes, generally do not catalyze chemical changes in their ligands.

Hormone Receptors, Follicle-Stimulating
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Hormone Receptors, Gastrointestinal
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Hormone Receptors, Growth
Cell surface proteins that bind somatotropin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.

Hormone Receptors, Intestinal
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Hormone Receptors, Luteinizing
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.

Hormone Receptors, Nuclear
Proteins in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind signaling molecules and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. The major groups are the steroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, STEROID), which usually are found in the cytoplasm, and the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE), which usually are found in the nucleus. Receptors, unlike enzymes, generally do not catalyze chemical changes in their ligands.

Hormone Receptors, Pancreatic
Cell surface proteins that bind pancreatic hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. These include receptors for glucagon (secreted by alpha cells), insulin (secreted by beta cells), somatostatin (secreted by delta cells), and pancreatic peptide (secreted by PP cells). Some of these hormones and receptors also support neurotransmission.

Hormone Receptors, Peptide
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.

Hormone Releasing Factors
Hormones released from the hypothalamus that directly affect the pituitary and initiate the release of other hormones into the bloodstream. Many hormone releasing factors use cyclic AMP as their secondary messengers.

Hormone Releasing IUD
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.

Hormone Replacement Therapies
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.

Hormone Replacement Therapy
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone) to replace those the body no longer produces after menopause.

Hormone Replacement Therapy, Post Menopausal
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, dyspareunia, and progressive development of osteoporosis. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.

Hormone Replacement Therapy, Post-Menopausal
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, dyspareunia, and progressive development of osteoporosis. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.

Hormone Sensitive Lipase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cholesterol and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion. EC 3.1.1.13.

Hormone therapy
The use of hormones, medications, or surgery to suppress (block) or mimic hormones and alter the growth of hormone sensitive cancer.

Hormone, Adrenocorticotrophic
Pituitary hormone that stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical steroids and induces growth of the adrenal cortex. It is also present in human female urine and in the serum of pregnant mares. The substance is a single-chain polypeptide containing 39 amino acids, the first 24 of which are identical in all species. This 24-amino acid segment is said to be responsible for the biological activity of the peptide while the remaining 15-amino acid segment is said to be necessary for any immunological specificity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Hormone, Adrenocorticotropic
Pituitary hormone that stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical steroids and induces growth of the adrenal cortex. It is also present in human female urine and in the serum of pregnant mares. The substance is a single-chain polypeptide containing 39 amino acids, the first 24 of which are identical in all species. This 24-amino acid segment is said to be responsible for the biological activity of the peptide while the remaining 15-amino acid segment is said to be necessary for any immunological specificity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Hormone, Corticotropin-Releasing
A neuropeptide released by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary gland.

Hormone, FSH-Releasing
A decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

Hormone, Gonadotropin-Releasing
A decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

Hormone, Growth
A small peptide hormone released by the anterior pituitary under hypothalamic control. Somatotropin, or growth hormone, stimulates mitosis, cell growth, and, for some cell types, differentiation in many tissues of the body. It has profound effects on many aspects of gene expression and metabolism.

Hormone, Growth Hormone-Releasing
Hypothalamic peptide that regulates the synthesis and secretion of SOMATOTROPIN in the anterior pituitary gland.

Hormone, Human Growth
Synthetic or naturally occuring growth hormone from the human pituitary gland. It is given to children with open epiphyses for the treatment of pituitary dwarfism. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)

Hormone, Interstitial Cell-Stimulating
A small glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. LH plays an important role in controlling ovulation and in controlling secretion of hormones by the ovaries and testes.

Hormone, LH-FSH Releasing
A decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

Hormone, LH-Releasing
A decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

Hormone, LHFSH Releasing
A decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

Hormone, Luteinizing
A small glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. LH plays an important role in controlling ovulation and in controlling secretion of hormones by the ovaries and testes.

Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing
A decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

Hormone, Lymphocyte-Stimulating
A soluble factor produced by monocytes, macrophages, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. IL-1 consists of two distinct forms, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta which perform the same functions but are distinct proteins. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation. The factor is distinct from INTERLEUKIN-2.

Hormone, MSH-Releasing
A polypeptide hormone which originates in the hypothalamus and stimulates secretion of melanocyte-stimulating hormones in the pituitary gland.

Hormone, Natriuretic
A low-molecular weight substance, possibly from the hypothalamus, which is released due to plasma volume expansion. It causes natriuresis in part by inhibiting sodium potassium ATPase. The development of hypertension may be the consequence of an abnormality in volume regulation induced by a defect in the renal response to the natriuretic effect of the natriuretic hormone. Do not confuse with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR or cardionatrin which is a different, well characterized hormone.

Hormone, Parathyroid
Polypeptide hormones (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the parathyroid glands, which promote release of calcium from bone to extracellular fluid by activating osteoblasts and inhibiting osteoclasts, indirectly promote increased intestinal absorption of calcium, and promote renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increased renal excretion of phosphates. It is a major regulator of bone metabolism. Secretion of parathyroid hormone increases when the level of calcium in the extracellular fluid is low. Its action is opposed by calcitonin. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hormone, Pituitary Growth
A small peptide hormone released by the anterior pituitary under hypothalamic control. Somatotropin, or growth hormone, stimulates mitosis, cell growth, and, for some cell types, differentiation in many tissues of the body. It has profound effects on many aspects of gene expression and metabolism.

Hormone, Pituitary Lactogenic
Pituitary lactogenic hormone. A polypeptide hormone with a molecular weight of about 23,000. It is essential in the induction of lactation in mammals at parturition and is synergistic with estrogen. The hormone also brings about the release of progesterone from lutein cells, which renders the uterine mucosa suited for the embedding of the ovum should fertilization occur.

Hormone, Pituitary Mammotropic
Pituitary lactogenic hormone. A polypeptide hormone with a molecular weight of about 23,000. It is essential in the induction of lactation in mammals at parturition and is synergistic with estrogen. The hormone also brings about the release of progesterone from lutein cells, which renders the uterine mucosa suited for the embedding of the ovum should fertilization occur.

Hormone, Placental Lactogen
A polypeptide hormone secreted by the placenta that enters the maternal circulation and disappears from the circulation immediately after delivery. It has growth-promoting activity, is immunologically similar to human growth hormone, and inhibits maternal insulin activity during pregnancy. By inhibiting glucose oxidation it can increase the glucose supply to a fetus developing in a malnourished mother. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hormone, Placental Mammotropic
A polypeptide hormone secreted by the placenta that enters the maternal circulation and disappears from the circulation immediately after delivery. It has growth-promoting activity, is immunologically similar to human growth hormone, and inhibits maternal insulin activity during pregnancy. By inhibiting glucose oxidation it can increase the glucose supply to a fetus developing in a malnourished mother. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hormone, Prolactin Release-Inhibiting
A polypeptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus that inhibits the release of PROLACTIN.

Hormone, Prolactin-Releasing
A polypeptide hormone that originates in the hypothalamus and stimulates the secretion of prolactin in the pituitary gland.

Hormone, Somatotropin-Releasing
Hypothalamic peptide that regulates the synthesis and secretion of SOMATOTROPIN in the anterior pituitary gland.

Hormone, Thyroid-Stimulating
A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It promotes the growth of the thyroid gland and stimulates the synthesis of thyroid hormones and the release of thyroxine by the thyroid gland.

Hormone-Binding Globulin, Sex
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosacaccharide modifications.

Hormone-Dependent Neoplasm
Certain tumors that 1) arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2) are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.

Hormone-Dependent Neoplasms
Certain tumors that 1) arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2) are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.

Hormone-Releasing Hormones, Pituitary
Hormones released by one structure (e.g., the hypothalamus or the thyroid gland) that effect the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hormone-Releasing Intrauterine Device
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.

Hormone-Releasing Intrauterine Devices
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.

Hormone-Releasing IUD
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.

Hormone-Releasing IUDs
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.

Hormone-Sensitive Lipase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cholesterol and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion. EC 3.1.1.13.

Hormones
Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.

Hormones Receptors, Gastrointestinal
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Hormones Receptors, Pancreatic
Cell surface proteins that bind pancreatic hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. These include receptors for glucagon (secreted by alpha cells), insulin (secreted by beta cells), somatostatin (secreted by delta cells), and pancreatic peptide (secreted by PP cells). Some of these hormones and receptors also support neurotransmission.

Hormones Receptors, Peptide
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.

Hormones, Anterior Pituitary
Protein, glycoprotein, or polypeptide hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hormones, Antidiuretic
Octapeptide antidiuretic hormones released by the neurohypophysis of all vertebrates (chemical composition varies with species). They control water metabolism and balance by regulating lung, gill, kidney, etc., and water loss, and also contract smooth muscle. They may also be neurotransmitters. Also included are synthetic vasopressin derivatives. Vasopressins are used pharmacologically as renal agents, vasoconstrictor agents, and hemostatics.

Hormones, Chloriuretic
A low-molecular weight substance, possibly from the hypothalamus, which is released due to plasma volume expansion. It causes natriuresis in part by inhibiting sodium potassium ATPase. The development of hypertension may be the consequence of an abnormality in volume regulation induced by a defect in the renal response to the natriuretic effect of the natriuretic hormone. Do not confuse with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR or cardionatrin which is a different, well characterized hormone.

Hormones, Conjugated Estrogenic
An amorphous preparation containing water-soluble, conjugated forms of mixed estrogens obtained either wholly or partly from the urine of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. The principal estrogen present is sodium estrone sulfate. The total estrogenic potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Hormones, Ectopic
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.

Hormones, Enteric
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.

Hormones, Gastrointestinal
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.

Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
A collective grouping for both naturally occurring and synthetic hormones, substitutes, and antagonists.

Hormones, Hypothalamic
Hormones isolated from the hypothalamus which exercise control over other organs, primarily the pituitary gland. Well-known members include certain pituitary hormone-releasing hormones and pituitary hormone release inhibiting hormones. Vasopressin and oxytocin which are found in the posterior pituitary may also be secreted by the hypothalamus but are not grouped here (PITUITARY HORMONES, POSTERIOR).

Hormones, Insect
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.

Hormones, Intestinal
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.

Hormones, Invertebrate
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.

Hormones, Juvenile
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.

Hormones, Natriuretic
A low-molecular weight substance, possibly from the hypothalamus, which is released due to plasma volume expansion. It causes natriuresis in part by inhibiting sodium potassium ATPase. The development of hypertension may be the consequence of an abnormality in volume regulation induced by a defect in the renal response to the natriuretic effect of the natriuretic hormone. Do not confuse with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR or cardionatrin which is a different, well characterized hormone.

Hormones, Pancreatic
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

Hormones, Parathyroid
Polypeptide hormones (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the parathyroid glands, which promote release of calcium from bone to extracellular fluid by activating osteoblasts and inhibiting osteoclasts, indirectly promote increased intestinal absorption of calcium, and promote renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increased renal excretion of phosphates. It is a major regulator of bone metabolism. Secretion of parathyroid hormone increases when the level of calcium in the extracellular fluid is low. Its action is opposed by calcitonin. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hormones, Pituitary
Hormones secreted by the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland and the pars intermedia, an ill-defined region between the two. Their secretion is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Hormones, Pituitary Hormone Releasing
Hormones released by one structure (e.g., the hypothalamus or the thyroid gland) that effect the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hormones, Pituitary Hormone-Releasing
Hormones released by one structure (e.g., the hypothalamus or the thyroid gland) that effect the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hormones, Placental
Hormones produced by the placenta during pregnancy, including chorionic gonadotropin and substances having estrogen, progestin, or adrenocorticoid activity. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hormones, Plant
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.

Hormones, Posterior Pituitary
Hormones released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary, including vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) and oxytocin. They are formed in the neuronal cells of the hypothalamic nuclei and stored in nerve cell endings in the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis). (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hormones, Progestational
A class of sex hormones associated with certain changes in the uterus and vagina during the menstrual cycle. They are necessary for the development of mammary tissue and for the maintenance of pregnancy.

Hormones, Recombinant Growth
Somatotropin prepared by recombinant DNA technology. Several different forms have been developed from humans, cows, and pigs. They have been used to help stimulate growth.

Hormones, Sex
Hormones having estrogenic (female sex hormones) or androgenic (male sex hormones) activity. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hormones, Substitutes, Antagonists
A collective grouping for both naturally occurring and synthetic hormones, substitutes, and antagonists.

Hormones, Synthetic
Synthetic chemical compounds that mimic the activity of hormones produced in the body, but differ in structure from naturally occurring hormones.

Hormones, Synthetic Progestational
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that possess progestational activity, but differ in structure from naturally occurring progestational hormones.

Hormones, Testicular
Hormones produced in the testis.

Hormones, Thymic
Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.

Hormones, Thymus
Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.

Hormones, Thyroid
Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland.

Hormonodynamics
Hormonal changes that take place in synchrony with changes in other processes manifested within or by a living organism, and that are presumed to have a governing or determining effect.



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Hemorrhage
A general term for loss of blood, often profuse, brought about by injury to the blood vessels or by a deficiency of certain necessary blood elements such as platelets.

Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a substance contained within the red blood cells and is responsible for their color. It has the unique property of combining reversibly with oxygen and is the medium by which oxygen is transported within the body. It takes up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and releases it as blood passes through the tissues.

Hormone

Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, alcohol, toxic chemicals, and certain drugs. Symptoms include jaundice (yellowish skin caused by the buildup of bile pigments in the body), fever, appetite loss and gastrointestinal upset.

Haploid
A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells.

Hermaphrodite
An individual with both male and female genitalia.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
The "good" cholesterol that helps remove cholesterol from cells. If insulin levels go up, then HDL levels go down. The lower your HDL level, the more likely you are to suffer cardiovascular complications.

Hippocampus
The portion of the limbic system in the brain that integrates incoming nerve impulses to the hypothalamus. It is also the memory center of the brain.

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   ormone / hrmone / homone / horone / hormne / hormoe / hormon / hhormone / hoormone / horrmone / hormmone / hormoone / hormonne / hormonee / yormone / uormone / jormone / normone / bormone / gormone / tormone / h9rmone / h0rmone / hprmone / hlrmone / hkrmone / hirmone / h8rmone / ho4mone / ho5mone / hotmone / hogmone / hofmone / hodmone / hoemone / ho3mone / hornone / horjone / horkone / hor,one / hor one / horm9ne / horm0ne / hormpne / hormlne / hormkne / hormine / horm8ne / hormobe / hormohe / hormoje / hormome / hormo e / hormon3 / hormon4 / hormonr / hormonf / hormond / hormons / hormonw /