GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase)
GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) A normal enzyme found in all cells that initiates the metabolism of a substance called glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is a component of all proteins and is also part of the cycle for the disposal of a waste product called ammonia. The presence of antibodies to GAD (called anti-GAD antibodies) in the blood is an early indication of the start of the autoimmune process in Type 1A Diabetes.
A cellular protein whose shape allows it to hold together several other molecules in close proximity to each other. In this way, enzymes are able to induce chemical reactions in other substances with little expenditure of energy and without being changed themselves. Basically, an enzyme acts as a catalyst.
The chemical activity that occurs in cells, releasing energy from nutrients, or using energy to create other substances, such as proteins.
colorless gas with a very sharp odor. Made both by humans and by nature, ammonia dissolves easily in water and evaporates quickly. Liquid ammonia is found in many household cleaners. Ammonia is irritating to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Exposure to high concentrations in the air can severely burn the skin, eyes, throat, or lungs. In extreme cases, blindness, lung damage, or death can occur. Breathing lower concentrations causes coughing and nose and throat irritation. Swallowing ammonia may burn the mouth, throat, and stomach. The amount of ammonia produced by humans every year is almost equal to that produced by nature every year. Ammonia is produced naturally in soil by bacteria, decaying plants and animals, and animal wastes. Ammonia is essential for many biological processes. Most of the ammonia produced in chemical factories is used to make fertilizers. The remaining is used in textiles, plastics, explosives, pulp and paper production, food and beverages, household cleaning products, refrigerants, and other products. It is also used in smelling salts.
Proteins produced by white blood cells. They confer immunity.
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.
Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry and attacks the body itself. Autoimmunity is present to some extent in everyone and is usually harmless. However, autoimmunity can cause a broad range of human illnesses, known collectively as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases occur when there is progression from benign autoimmunity to pathogenic autoimmunity. This progression is determined by genetic influences as well as environmental triggers. Autoimmunity is evidenced by the presence of autoantibodies (antibodies directed against the person who produced them) and T cells that are reactive with host antigens.
A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas type 2 diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin.
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A chronic debilitating disease of horses and other equids, as well as some members of the cat family, caused by Pseudomonas mallei; it is transmissible to humans. It attacks the mucous membranes of the nostrils of the horse, producing an increased and vitiated secretion and discharge of mucus, and enlargement and induration of the glands of the lower jaw.
Less than the normal number of granular leukocytes in the blood.
The extent to which the findings of a clinical trial can be reliably extrapolated from the subjects who participated in the trial to a broader patient population and a broader range of clinical settings.
Good clinical practice (GCP)
A standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses, and reporting of health research that provides assurance that the data and reported results are credible and accurate, and that the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of subjects are protected.
Good clinical research practice (GCRP)
Term sometimes used in the United Kingdom to describe GCP. See also good clinical practice.
GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase)
A type of sugar found in milk products and sugar beets. It is also made by the body. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has calories.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
A type of diabetes mellitus that can occur when a woman is pregnant. In the second half of the pregnancy, the woman may have glucose (sugar) in the blood at a higher than normal level. However, when the pregnancy ends, the blood glucose levels return to normal in about 95 percent of all cases.
Network of tiny blood vessels in the kidneys where the blood is filtered and waste products are removed.
A medical term that indicates the level of glucose in the blood.
The effect of different foods on blood glucose (sugar) levels over a period of time. Researchers have discovered that some kinds of foods may raise blood glucose levels more quickly than other foods containing the same amount of carbohydrates.
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