GABAergic Modulators
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  GABAergic Modulators



GABAergic Modulators

   Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which benzodiazepines act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which barbiturates act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. General anesthetics probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.

RELATED TERMS
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Affect
This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

Receptors
Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow the cell to join or bind with insulin that is in the blood.

Benzodiazepines
A class of drugs that act as tranquilizers and are commonly used in the treatment of anxiety. Benzodiazepines can cause drowsiness.

Steroids
See corticosteroid drugs.



SIMILAR TERMS
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GABA
An amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

GABA A Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA A Receptors
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA Agents
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

GABA Agonist
Drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).

GABA Agonists
Drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).

GABA alpha Ketoglutarate Aminotransferase
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.

GABA Aminotransferase
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.

GABA Antagonist
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID or GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID agonists.

GABA Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID or GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID agonists.

GABA B Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and influence cells via interactions with G-proteins. GABA-B receptors are pharmacologically characterized by their insensitivity to the blocker bicuculline and sensitivity to the agonist L-baclofen. They are found both presynaptically and postsynaptically, and act variously by inhibition of adenylate cyclase, activation of phospholipase A2, activation of potassium channels, and inactivation of voltage-activated calcium channels.

GABA B Receptors
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and influence cells via interactions with G-proteins. GABA-B receptors are pharmacologically characterized by their insensitivity to the blocker bicuculline and sensitivity to the agonist L-baclofen. They are found both presynaptically and postsynaptically, and act variously by inhibition of adenylate cyclase, activation of phospholipase A2, activation of potassium channels, and inactivation of voltage-activated calcium channels.

GABA Benzodiazepine Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA Benzodiazepine Receptors
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA Modulators
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which benzodiazepines act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which barbiturates act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. General anesthetics probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.

GABA Receptor
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.

GABA Receptor Agonist
Drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).

GABA Receptor Agonists
Drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).

GABA Receptor Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID or GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID agonists.

GABA Receptors
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.

GABA Transaminase
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.

GABA(A) Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA, Chlorophenyl
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist at GABA-B receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-B). It is used in the treatment of spasticity, especially that due to spinal cord damage. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.

GABA, Lithium
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

GABA-A Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA-A Receptors
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA-alpha-Ketoglutarate Aminotransferase
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.

GABA-B Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and influence cells via interactions with G-proteins. GABA-B receptors are pharmacologically characterized by their insensitivity to the blocker bicuculline and sensitivity to the agonist L-baclofen. They are found both presynaptically and postsynaptically, and act variously by inhibition of adenylate cyclase, activation of phospholipase A2, activation of potassium channels, and inactivation of voltage-activated calcium channels.

GABA-B Receptors
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and influence cells via interactions with G-proteins. GABA-B receptors are pharmacologically characterized by their insensitivity to the blocker bicuculline and sensitivity to the agonist L-baclofen. They are found both presynaptically and postsynaptically, and act variously by inhibition of adenylate cyclase, activation of phospholipase A2, activation of potassium channels, and inactivation of voltage-activated calcium channels.

GABA-Benzodiazepine Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA-Benzodiazepine Receptors
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABAergic Agent
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

GABAergic Agents
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Gabapentin
Gabapentin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): gabapentin.

Gabapetin
Gabapetin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): gabapentin.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Gabexate Mesylate
A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.

Gabexate Mesilate
A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.

Gabexate
A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.

Gabbromycin
An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various Streptomyces.

GABAergic Agents
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

GABAergic Modulators

GABAergic Agent
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

GABA-Benzodiazepine Receptors
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA-Benzodiazepine Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and control an integral membrane chloride channel. GABA-A receptors are the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Several isoforms have been cloned, and they belong to a superfamily which includes nicotinic receptors, glycine receptors, and 5HT-3 receptors. Most GABA-A receptors have separate modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and to barbiturates.

GABA-B Receptors
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and influence cells via interactions with G-proteins. GABA-B receptors are pharmacologically characterized by their insensitivity to the blocker bicuculline and sensitivity to the agonist L-baclofen. They are found both presynaptically and postsynaptically, and act variously by inhibition of adenylate cyclase, activation of phospholipase A2, activation of potassium channels, and inactivation of voltage-activated calcium channels.

GABA-B Receptor
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and influence cells via interactions with G-proteins. GABA-B receptors are pharmacologically characterized by their insensitivity to the blocker bicuculline and sensitivity to the agonist L-baclofen. They are found both presynaptically and postsynaptically, and act variously by inhibition of adenylate cyclase, activation of phospholipase A2, activation of potassium channels, and inactivation of voltage-activated calcium channels.

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