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  G



G

   G stands for guanine, one member of the base pair G-C (guanine-cytosine) in the DNA. The other base pair in the DNA is A-T (adenine-thymine). Each base pair forms a "rung of the DNA ladder." A DNA nucleotide is made of a molecule of sugar, a molecule of phosphoric acid, and a molecule called a base. The bases are the "letters" that spell out the genetic code. In DNA, the code letters are A, T, G, and C, which stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In base pairing, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.

RELATED TERMS
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Guanine
(guanine triphosphate) One of the 4 types of nucleotides that make up DNA. Base pairs with cytosine by 3 hydrogen bonds.

Base
A chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Bases and acids are referred to as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Arrhenius bases are water-soluble and always have a pH greater than 7 in solution.

DNA
Deoxyribo-Nucleic acid. DNA molecules carry the genetic information necessary for the organization and functioning of most living cells and control the inheritance of characteristics.

Forms
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the developing, maintaining, and handling of forms and records.

Sugar
A class of carbohydrates that taste sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.

Genetic
Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.

Code
The genetic code is the correspondence between the triplet of bases in DNA with the amino acids.

Adenine
A purine base found in RNA and DNA; in double-stranded DNA adenine pairs with the pyrimidine thymine.

Thymine
A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair AT (adenine-thymine).

Cytosine
One of the pyrimidine nitrogenous bases occurring in both DNA and RNA.

Pairing
A method by which subjects are selected so that two subjects with similar characteristics (for example, weight, smoking habits) are assigned to a set, but one receives Treatment A and the other receives Treatment B.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Glycosuria, Glucosuria
Having glucose (sugar) in the urine.

Gram
A unit of weight in the metric system. There are 28 grams in 1 ounce. In some diet plans for people with diabetes, the suggested amounts of food are given in grams.

Gene Therapy
Gene therapy is correcting functional gene loss by delivering genes to human tissues. Often DNA viruses engineered to be safe or nonviral DNA are used to help deliver a healthy gene to the tissue cells.

Gingival Hypertrophy
Enlargement of the gums. A common side effect of the medication cyclosporine (Sandimmune), this condition is easily managed with good oral hygiene.

Great Vessels
The large blood vessels that enter the heart: the aorta, the pulmonary artery and vein, and the venae cavae.

G

G (drug caution code)
Abbreviation on a medication that stands for "glaucoma" and indicates the medication can cause problems for a person with this eye disorder. Further, a person with glaucoma might see the generic "C" code on a prescription bottle or vial if the medication might raise the pressure within the eye.

G protein
These molecules have been described as "biological traffic lights." Located inside the cell, G proteins are able respond to signals outside the cell -- light, smell, hormones -- and translate (transduce) these signals into action within the cell.

G-CSF
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). G-CSF is a cytokine that belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic (blood-forming) agents.

G6PD deficiency
Deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the most common enzyme defect of medical importance. About 10 percent of American black males have G6PD deficiency, as do a lesser percent of black females. G6PD deficiency is also increased in frequency in people of Mediterranean origin (including Italians, Greeks, Arabs, and Jews). The gene encoding G6PD is on the X chromosome. Males with this enzyme deficiency may develop anemia due to the breakup of their red blood cells when they are exposed to oxidant drugs, naphthalene moth balls, or fava beans. The offending drugs include the antimalarial primaquine, salicylates, sulfonamide antibiotics, nitrofurans, phenacetin, and some vitamin K derivatives. Fever, viral and bacterial infections, and diabetic acidosis can also precipitate a hemolytic crisis (when the red blood cells break up), resulting in anemia and jaundice. The concentration of G6PD deficiency in certain populations is believed to reflect a protective effect it afforded (much like sickle cell trait) against malaria.

GAD
Generalized anxiety disorder.

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