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   Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). G-CSF is a cytokine that belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic (blood-forming) agents.


Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups: NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.

The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). G-CSF is a cytokine that belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic (blood-forming) agents.

A small protein released by cells that has a specific effect on the interactions between cells, on communications between cells or on the behavior of cells. The cytokines includes the interleukins, lymphokines and cell signal molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor and the interferons, which trigger inflammation and respond to infections.

1. A group of individuals related by blood or marriage or by a feeling of closeness. 2. A biological classification of related plants or animals that is a division below the order and above the genus. 3. A group of genes related in structure and in function that descended from an ancestral gene. 4. A group of gene products similarly related in structure and function and of shared genetic descent. 5. Parents and their children. The most fundamental social group in humans.

Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.



Gingival Hypertrophy
Enlargement of the gums. A common side effect of the medication cyclosporine (Sandimmune), this condition is easily managed with good oral hygiene.

Great Vessels
The large blood vessels that enter the heart: the aorta, the pulmonary artery and vein, and the venae cavae.

G stands for guanine, one member of the base pair G-C (guanine-cytosine) in the DNA. The other base pair in the DNA is A-T (adenine-thymine). Each base pair forms a "rung of the DNA ladder." A DNA nucleotide is made of a molecule of sugar, a molecule of phosphoric acid, and a molecule called a base. The bases are the "letters" that spell out the genetic code. In DNA, the code letters are A, T, G, and C, which stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In base pairing, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.

G (drug caution code)
Abbreviation on a medication that stands for "glaucoma" and indicates the medication can cause problems for a person with this eye disorder. Further, a person with glaucoma might see the generic "C" code on a prescription bottle or vial if the medication might raise the pressure within the eye.

G protein
These molecules have been described as "biological traffic lights." Located inside the cell, G proteins are able respond to signals outside the cell -- light, smell, hormones -- and translate (transduce) these signals into action within the cell.


G6PD deficiency
Deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the most common enzyme defect of medical importance. About 10 percent of American black males have G6PD deficiency, as do a lesser percent of black females. G6PD deficiency is also increased in frequency in people of Mediterranean origin (including Italians, Greeks, Arabs, and Jews). The gene encoding G6PD is on the X chromosome. Males with this enzyme deficiency may develop anemia due to the breakup of their red blood cells when they are exposed to oxidant drugs, naphthalene moth balls, or fava beans. The offending drugs include the antimalarial primaquine, salicylates, sulfonamide antibiotics, nitrofurans, phenacetin, and some vitamin K derivatives. Fever, viral and bacterial infections, and diabetic acidosis can also precipitate a hemolytic crisis (when the red blood cells break up), resulting in anemia and jaundice. The concentration of G6PD deficiency in certain populations is believed to reflect a protective effect it afforded (much like sickle cell trait) against malaria.

Generalized anxiety disorder.

Gain-of-function mutation
A mutation that confers new or enhanced activity on a protein. Loss-of-function mutations, which are more common, result in reduced or abolished protein function.

An abnormally large and persistent fear of sharks. Sufferers from this phobia experience anxiety even though they may be safe on a boat or in an aquarium or on a beach. Hollywood films depicting sharks as calculating, vengeful diabolical monsters have no doubt enkindled the fear of sharks in many persons. So have validated reports of sharks venturing into rivers and lakes.

Gallbladder absence
This condition, also known as agenesis (failure of development) of the gallbladder, occurs in approximately one out of every 1,000 people. Gallbladder agenesis is an isolated abnormality in more than two-thirds (70%) of people with agenesis. The person with isolated agenesis of the gallbladder is healthy. No treatment is needed. The prognosis (outlook) is excellent.

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