Fruits, Citrus
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  Fruits, Citrus



Fruits, Citrus

   A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Species in this genus include orange, grapefruit, lemon, and lime.

RELATED TERMS
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Family
1. A group of individuals related by blood or marriage or by a feeling of closeness. 2. A biological classification of related plants or animals that is a division below the order and above the genus. 3. A group of genes related in structure and in function that descended from an ancestral gene. 4. A group of gene products similarly related in structure and function and of shared genetic descent. 5. Parents and their children. The most fundamental social group in humans.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Fruit
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.

Fruit Flies
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.

Fruit Flies, Mediterranean
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Sarcophagidae, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE.

Fruit Fly
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.

Fruit Fly, Mediterranean
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Sarcophagidae, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE.

Fruit, Citrus
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Species in this genus include orange, grapefruit, lemon, and lime.

Fruits
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Fructans
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.

Fru-kinase-Fru-bisphosphatase
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.

Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Inherited abnormalities of fructose metabolism, which include three known autosomal recessive types: hepatic fructokinase deficiency (essential fructosuria), hereditary fructose intolerance, and hereditary fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. Essential fructosuria is a benign asymptomatic metabolic disorder caused by deficiency in fructokinase, leading to decreased conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate and alimentary hyperfructosemia, but with no clinical dysfunction; may produce a false-positive diabetes test.

Fructose Intolerances
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.

Fructose-6-P 1-Kinase
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are muscle type M (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE); liver type L (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE); and type C (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, C TYPE) found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.

Fruits, Citrus

Fruits
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.

Frugiperdas, Spodoptera
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.

Fructosediphosphates
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.

FSH-Releasing Protein
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.

Frustrations
The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.

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