Facial canal introitus
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  Facial canal introitus



Facial canal introitus

   In anatomy, an introitus is an entrance, one that goes into a canal or hollow organ. The introitus of the facial canal is the entrance to the facial canal, a passage in the temporal bone of the skull through which the facial nerve (the 7th cranial nerve) travels.

RELATED TERMS
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Anatomy
The study of form. Gross anatomy involves structures that can be seen with the naked eye. It is as opposed to microscopic anatomy (or histology) which involves structures seen under the microscope.

Organ
A structural unit of an animal or plant that serves a specific function.

Temporal
Having to do with the side of the head.

Bone
Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

Skull
The bony framework of the head.

Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

Cranial
The anatomical term for towards the head; also the general term for of the head. i.e. the lungs are cranial to the pelvis. See Caudal/Inferior/Superior



SIMILAR TERMS
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Facial Asymmetries
Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.

Facial Asymmetry
Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.

Facial Bone
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones, mandible, and maxilla, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)

Facial Bones
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones, mandible, and maxilla, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)

Facial Expression
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.

Facial Expressions
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.

Facial Hemiatrophies
A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.

Facial Hemiatrophies, Progressive
A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.

Facial Hemiatrophy
A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.

Facial Hemiatrophy of Romberg
A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.

Facial Hemiatrophy, Progressive
A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.

Facial Injuries
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.

Facial Injury
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.

Facial muscle
One of the 43 muscles in the human face. The facial muscles convey basic human emotions such as anger, sadness, fear, surprise, disgust, contempt and happiness by very clear facial signals.

Facial Muscle
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Facial Muscles
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Facial Myokymia
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Myokymias
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Nerve
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear.

Facial Nerve Avulsion
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., ""crocodile tears"") and other syndromes.

Facial Nerve Avulsions
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., ""crocodile tears"") and other syndromes.

Facial Nerve Disease
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Nerve Diseases
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Nerve Disorder
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Nerve Disorders
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Nerve Injuries
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., ""crocodile tears"") and other syndromes.

Facial Nerve Injury
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., ""crocodile tears"") and other syndromes.

Facial Nerve Motor Disorders
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Nerve Sensory Disorders
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Nerve Trauma
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., ""crocodile tears"") and other syndromes.

Facial Nerve Traumas
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., ""crocodile tears"") and other syndromes.

Facial Neuralgia
Neuralgic syndromes and other conditions which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.

Facial Neuralgias
Neuralgic syndromes and other conditions which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.

Facial Neuritides
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Neuritis
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Neuropathies
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Neuropathies, Acquired
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Neuropathies, Familial
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Neuropathies, Traumatic
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., ""crocodile tears"") and other syndromes.

Facial Neuropathy
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Neuropathy, Acquired
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Neuropathy, Cheilitis Granulomatosa, Orofacial Edema
An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)

Facial Neuropathy, Familial
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Facial Neuropathy, Idiopathic Acute
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Facial Neuropathy, Inflammatory, Acute
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Facial Neuropathy, Orofacial Edema, Cheilitis Granulomatosa
An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)

Facial Neuropathy, Traumatic
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., ""crocodile tears"") and other syndromes.

Facial Pain
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.

Facial Pain Syndrome
Neuralgic syndromes and other conditions which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.

Facial Pain Syndromes
Neuralgic syndromes and other conditions which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.

Facial Pain, Neuralgic
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.

Facial Pain, Referred
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.

Facial Palsies
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Palsy
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Palsy, Lower Motor Neuron
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Palsy, Upper Motor Neuron
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Paralyses, Central
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Paralyses, Herpetic
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Facial Paralyses, Idiopathic
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Facial Paralyses, Peripheral
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Paralysis
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Paralysis, Central
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Paralysis, Herpetic
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Facial Paralysis, Idiopathic
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Facial Paralysis, Peripheral
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Paresis
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.

Facial Recognition Agnosia
The inability to recognize a familiar face or to learn to recognize new faces. This visual agnosia is most often associated with lesions involving the junctional regions between the temporal and occipital lobes. The majority of cases are associated with bilateral lesions, however unilateral damage to the right occipito-temporal cortex has also been associated with this condition. (From Cortex 1995 Jun;31(2):317-29)

Facial Recognition Agnosias
The inability to recognize a familiar face or to learn to recognize new faces. This visual agnosia is most often associated with lesions involving the junctional regions between the temporal and occipital lobes. The majority of cases are associated with bilateral lesions, however unilateral damage to the right occipito-temporal cortex has also been associated with this condition. (From Cortex 1995 Jun;31(2):317-29)

Facial Spasm, Unilateral
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)

Facial Spasms, Unilateral
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)

Facial-Oral Apraxia
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)

Facial-Oral Apraxias
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)

Facies
The appearance of the face that is often characteristic of a disease or pathological condition, as the elfin facies of Williams syndrome or the mongoloid facies of Down syndrome. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Facilitated Ion Transport
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.

Facilitation, Social
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.

Facilitations, Social
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.

Facilities, Ambulatory Care
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.

Facilities, Cancer Care
Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.

Facilities, Cardiac Care
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.

Facilities, Dental
Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.

Facilities, Extended Care
Extended care facilities which provide skilled nursing care or rehabilitation services for inpatients on a daily basis.

Facilities, Health
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.

Facilities, Intermediate Care
Institutions which provide health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care which hospitals or skilled nursing facilities provide, but because of their physical or mental condition require care and services above the level of room and board.

Facilities, Parking
Indoor or outdoor areas designated for the parking of vehicles.

Facilities, Proprietary Health
Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.

Facilities, Public
An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.

Facilities, Residential
Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.

Facilities, Skilled Nursing
Extended care facilities which provide skilled nursing care or rehabilitation services for inpatients on a daily basis.

Facilities, Toilet
Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.

Facility Access
Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.

Facility Accesses
Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.

Facility Acquisition, Health
The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.

Facility Acquisitions, Health
The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.

Facility Administrator, Health
Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of health care facilities such as nursing homes.

Facility Administrators, Health
Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of health care facilities such as nursing homes.

Facility Closure, Health
The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.

Facility Closures, Health
The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.

Facility Construction
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.

Facility Constructions
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.

Facility Control
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.

Facility Controls
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.

Facility Conversion, Health
Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.

Facility Conversions, Health
Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.

Facility Design
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.

Facility Design and Construction
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.

Facility Designs
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.

Facility Environment, Health
Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.

Facility Merger, Health
The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.

Facility Mergers, Health
The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.

Facility Moving, Health
The relocation of health care institutions or units thereof. The concept includes equipment relocation.

Facility Planning, Health
Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.

Facility Plannings, Health
Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.

Facility Regulation
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.

Facility Regulation and Control
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.

Facility Regulations
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.

Facility Size, Health
The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.

Facility Sizes, Health
The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.

Facility, Ambulatory Care
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.

Facility, Cancer Care
Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.

Facility, Cardiac Care
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.

Facility, Dental
Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.

Facility, Extended Care
Extended care facilities which provide skilled nursing care or rehabilitation services for inpatients on a daily basis.

Facility, Health
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.

Facility, Intermediate Care
Institutions which provide health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care which hospitals or skilled nursing facilities provide, but because of their physical or mental condition require care and services above the level of room and board.

Facility, Parking
Indoor or outdoor areas designated for the parking of vehicles.

Facility, Proprietary Health
Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.

Facility, Public
An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.

Facility, Residential
Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.

Facility, Skilled Nursing
Extended care facilities which provide skilled nursing care or rehabilitation services for inpatients on a daily basis.

Facility, Toilet
Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.

Facing
Tooth colored overlay on the visible portion of a crown; may be acrylic, composite or porcelain.

Facioscapulohumeral Atrophies
An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicuaris oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)

Facioscapulohumeral Atrophy
An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicuaris oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophies
An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicuaris oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
A form of muscular dystrophy that typically begins before age 20 with slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, shoulders, and feet. The severity of the disease is quite variable. Although most people with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) retain the ability to walk, about 20% require a wheelchair. Life expectancy is not shortened. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a DNA test disclosing the deletion of copies of a repeat motif called D4Z4 on chromosome 4. FSHD is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Offspring of an affected individual have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutant chromosome 4. About 10-30% of cases are due to a new mutation. Prenatal testing is available.

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy
An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicuaris oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)

Facioscapulohumeral Type Progressive Muscular Dystrophy
An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicuaris oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)

FACIT Collagen
A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.

FACIT Collagens
A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.



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Free Radical
A destructive fragment of oxygen produced as a byproduct when cells use oxygen to burn fat.

F (coefficient of inbreeding)
F is the symbol for the coefficient of inbreeding, a way of gauging how close two people are genetically to one another. The coefficient of inbreeding, F, is the probability that a person with two identical genes received both genes from one ancestor.

F (symbol)
A much used symbol, F stands for fractional concentration; free energy; Fahrenheit; visual field; fluorine; force; filial generation, followed by subscript numerals indicating specified matings such as F1); the amino acid phenylalanine; the coefficient of inbreeding , etc.

Facelift
A surgical procedure designed to make the face appear younger by pulling loose facial skin taut. With age or excessive sun exposure, wrinkled creased skin can develop on the face, neck or forehead along with fat deposits and folds around the jaws and jowls. While a facelift cannot stop the aging process, it may "turn back the clock" in appearance. Recovery time is usually 1 week, and the results last approximately 10 years. Additional procedures to supplement a facelift -- including necklift, blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery), liposuction, autologous fat injection, removal of buccal (cheek) fat pads, forehead lift, and browlift; chemical or laser peel; and malar (cheek), submalar, or chin implants -- may be necessary to achieve the desired results. Although they are infrequent, risks and complications of facelift surgery include bleeding; hematoma; bruising; infection; neurological dysfunction (loss of muscle function or sensation), which is usually temporary; widened or thickened scars; loss of hair around the incision site; asymmetry (unevenness between two sides); and skin necrosis (loss of skin due to tissue death).

Facelift surgery risks
Although infrequent, the risks and complications of facelift surgery include: bleeding, hematoma, bruising; infection; neurological dysfunction (loss of muscle function or sensation), which is usually temporary; widened or thickened scar; loss of hair (around the incision site), asymmetry (unevenness between two sides); and skin necrosis (loss of skin from tissue death).

Facial canal introitus

Facial muscle
One of the 43 muscles in the human face. The facial muscles convey basic human emotions such as anger, sadness, fear, surprise, disgust, contempt and happiness by very clear facial signals.

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
A form of muscular dystrophy that typically begins before age 20 with slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, shoulders, and feet. The severity of the disease is quite variable. Although most people with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) retain the ability to walk, about 20% require a wheelchair. Life expectancy is not shortened. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a DNA test disclosing the deletion of copies of a repeat motif called D4Z4 on chromosome 4. FSHD is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Offspring of an affected individual have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutant chromosome 4. About 10-30% of cases are due to a new mutation. Prenatal testing is available.

Factor V
A coagulation factor needed for the normal clotting of blood. Also known as proaccelerin.

Factor V Leiden
A genetic disorder of blood coagulation (clotting) that carries an increased risk of venous thromboembolism - the formation of clots in veins that may break loose and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs or brain. On the molecular level, factor V Leiden is characterized by a G to A substitution at nucleotide 1691 in the gene for factor V that causes a single amino acid replacement in the factor V protein. On the clotting level, factor V Leiden is inactivated about 10 times slower than normal factor V and persists longer in the circulation, resulting in increased generation of thrombin and a hypercoagulable state (thrombophilia).

Factor VIII
Factor eight, a key factor in the process of blood coagulation (clotting). Lack of normal factor VIII causes hemophilia (hemophilia A). The gene for classic hemophilia was long known to be on the X chromosome. Females carry the gene and transmit it to their hemophiliac sons. Female carriers are normal since they have another X chromosome that contains a normal gene to make factor VIII. Each of their sons has a one-half (50:50) risk of being a hemophiliac. Because the gene for hemophilia was clearly on the X chromosome, it was correctly inferred that the normal gene for Factor VIII was on the X. Factor VIII is also known as antihemophiliac factor or antihemophiliac globulin.

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