Fab Fragment of antibody containing the antigen-binding site, generated by cleavage of the antibody with the enzyme papain, which cuts at the hinge region N-terminally to the inter-H-chain disulphide bond and generates two Fab fragments from one antibody molecule.
An infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms (eg, bacteria, viruses) or toxins. Antibodies, known generally as immunoglobulins, are made and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens. Each specific antibody binds only to the specific antigen that stimulated its production.
The process of cell division in the very early embryo before it becomes a blastocyst.
A cellular protein whose shape allows it to hold together several other molecules in close proximity to each other. In this way, enzymes are able to induce chemical reactions in other substances with little expenditure of energy and without being changed themselves. Basically, an enzyme acts as a catalyst.
Severed skin. Washing a cut or scrape with soap and water and keeping it clean and dry is all that is required to care for most wounds. Putting alcohol hydrogen peroxide, and iodine into a wound can delay healing and should be avoided. Seek medical care early if you think that you might need stitches. Any delay can increase the rate of wound infection. Any puncture wound through tennis shoes has a high risk of infection and should be seen by your healthcare professional. Any redness, swelling, increased pain, or pus draining from the wound may indicate an infection that requires professional care.
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The back part of the eye that can be seen with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope. Visible features include the retina with its blood vessels, the optic nerve and choroid. The fundus surrounds the fovea, that part of the eye used for reading.
See Stargardt’s disease.
A hypnotic substance.
A clinic or hospital specialized in fertility treatment.
A fragment of an antibody containing two antigen-binding sites generated by cleavage of the antibody molecule with the enzyme pepsin which cuts at the hinge region C-terminally to the inter-H-chain disulphide bond.
Fragment of antibody without antigen-binding sites, generated by cleavage with papain; the Fc fragment contains the C-terminal domains of the heavy immunoglobulin chains.
Fc receptor (FcR)
A receptor on a cell surface with specific binding affinity for the Fc portion of an antibody molecule. Fc receptors are found on many types of cells.
An antibody coupled with a fluorescent dye, used with a fluorescence microscope to detect antigen on cells, tissues, or microorganisms.
Freund's complete adjuvant
A water-in-oil emulsion that contains an immunogen, an emulsifying agent, and killed mycobacteria which enhance the immune response to the immunogen; termed "incomplete" Freund's adjuvant if mycobacteria are not included.
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