Endocrine
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  Endocrine



Endocrine

   Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the bloodstream through which they travel to affect distant organs. The endocrine sites include the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, heart (which makes atrial-natriuretic peptide), the stomach and intestines, islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, the adrenal glands, the kidney (which makes renin, erythropoietin, and calcitriol), fat cells (which make leptin). the testes, the ovarian follicle (estrogens) and the corpus luteum in the ovary). Endocrine is as opposed to exocrine. (The exocrine glands include the salivary glands, sweat glands and glands within the gastrointestinal tract.)

RELATED TERMS
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Hormones
Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.

Secrete
To make and give off such as when the beta cells make insulin and then release it into the blood so that the other cells in the body can use it to turn glucose (sugar) into energy.

Affect
This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

Endocrine
Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the bloodstream through which they travel to affect distant organs. The endocrine sites include the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, heart (which makes atrial-natriuretic peptide), the stomach and intestines, islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, the adrenal glands, the kidney (which makes renin, erythropoietin, and calcitriol), fat cells (which make leptin). the testes, the ovarian follicle (estrogens) and the corpus luteum in the ovary). Endocrine is as opposed to exocrine. (The exocrine glands include the salivary glands, sweat glands and glands within the gastrointestinal tract.)

Hypothalamus
The portion of the brain's limbic system that integrates incoming information, and either increases or decreases the release of certain hormones that instruct the pituitary gland to release hormones.

Pituitary
The gland from which a number of hormones are released into the bloodstream. These hormones include growth hormone, ACTH, B-lipocortin (the precursor to B-endorphorin), FSH, LH, and TSH.

Gland
An organ that releases a chemical. Endocrine glands are ductless and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands secrete externally, either through a tube or duct.

Pineal
The gland located within the brain that synthesizes melatonin.

Thyroid
The gland in the throat that synthesizes thyroid hormones that affect metabolism.

Heart
The hollow, muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system.

Stomach
The organ between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach is where digestion of protein begins.

Intestines
See large intestine and small intestine. Also called gut.

Pancreas
A large, elongated gland located behind the lower portion of the stomach that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood. These hormones are essential in regulating blood sugar levels. The pancreas also secretes enzymes into the small intestine that help with digestion and neutralize acid from the stomach.

Kidney
One of the paired organs that excrete urine. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs (about 11 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick) lying on either side of the vertebral column, posterior to the peritoneum, about opposite the twelfth thoracic and first three lumbar vertebrae.

Renin
An enzyme produced by the kidney. Renin is released into the bloodstream by the kidneys in order to regulate blood pressure

Erythropoietin
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the kidney in the adult and the liver in the fetus, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the bone marrow to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.

Testes
The pair of male glands, contained in the scrotum, that produce sperm.

Follicle
The tiny shaft in the skin through which a hair grows, and sebum is excreted from sebaceous glands to the surface of the skin.

Corpus
The body of the uterus (womb).

Exocrine
Pertaining to a gland with a duct through which its secretion, for example, tears or saliva, passes.

Gastrointestinal
Having to do with the stomach and intestines.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Endo 1,3 beta Glucanase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman. EC 3.2.1.39.

Endo 1,4 beta Glucanase
An enzyme isolated from fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans. EC 3.2.1.4.

Endo A Cytokeratin
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo A Protein
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo B Cytokeratin
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo B Protein
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo beta acetylglucosaminidase
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo beta Hexosaminidase H
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo beta N acetylglucosaminidase D
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo beta N acetylglucosaminidase F
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo beta N acetylglucosaminidase H
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo C Cytokeratin
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo N acetyl beta d glucosaminidase
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase, Glucan
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman. EC 3.2.1.39.

Endo-1,3-beta-Glucanase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman. EC 3.2.1.39.

Endo-1,4-beta-Glucanase
An enzyme isolated from fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans. EC 3.2.1.4.

Endo-A Cytokeratin
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo-A Protein
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo-B Cytokeratin
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo-B Protein
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo-beta-acetylglucosaminidase
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo-beta-Hexosaminidase H
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase D
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase, Mannosyl-Glycoprotein
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endo-C Cytokeratin
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Endo-GF
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.

Endo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endobronchial Allergen Challenge
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.

Endobronchial Allergen Challenges
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.

Endobronchial Challenge Test
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.

Endobronchial Challenge Tests
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.

Endobulin
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS, primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA, SCID, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, chronic lymphocytic LEUKEMIA, Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.

Endocannabinoid
A marijuana-like substance. Endocannabinoid is abbreviated EC.

Endocardial
Pertaining to the endocardium, the inside lining of the heart.

Endocardial Cushion Defect
A spectrum of septal defects associated with persistence of the embryonic atrioventricular canal due to incomplete growth and fusion of the endocardial cushion.

Endocardial Cushion Defects
A spectrum of septal defects associated with persistence of the embryonic atrioventricular canal due to incomplete growth and fusion of the endocardial cushion.

Endocardial Fibroelastoses
A condition characterized by hypertrophy of the wall of the left ventricle and conversion of the endocardium into a thick fibroelastic coat, with the capacity of the ventricle sometimes reduced, but often increased. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Endocardial Fibroelastosis
A condition characterized by hypertrophy of the wall of the left ventricle and conversion of the endocardium into a thick fibroelastic coat, with the capacity of the ventricle sometimes reduced, but often increased. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Endocarditides
Exudative and proliferative inflammatory alterations of the endocardium, characterized by the presence of vegetations on the surface of the endocardium or in the endocardium itself, and most commonly involving a heart valve, but sometimes affecting the inner lining of the cardiac chambers or the endocardium elsewhere. It may occur as a primary disorder or as a complication of or in association with another disease. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Endocarditides, Subacute Bacterial
Infection of the endocardium caused by species of STREPTOCOCCUS. This condition does not produce metastatic foci and if untreated may take up to a year to be fatal.

Endocarditis
A bacterial infection of the heart lining.

Endocarditis (SBE)
An infection of the inner lining of the heart or its valves. It is usually caused by bacteria and is more likely to occur in people who have heart valve defects or have had heart surgery to treat valve disease.

Endocarditis Lenta
Infection of the endocardium caused by species of STREPTOCOCCUS. This condition does not produce metastatic foci and if untreated may take up to a year to be fatal.

Endocarditis, Loeffler
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

Endocarditis, Loefflers
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial
Infection of the endocardium caused by species of STREPTOCOCCUS. This condition does not produce metastatic foci and if untreated may take up to a year to be fatal.

Endocardium
The membrane that covers the inside surface of the heart.

Endocardiums
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.

Endocavitary Fulguration
Electrosurgical procedures used to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias.

Endocervical curettage
The removal of tissue from the inside of the cervix using a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette.

Endochondral bone
Any bone that develops in and replaces cartilage. The cartilage is partially or entirely destroyed by the process of calcification. The cartilage is then resorbed (reabsorbed), leaving bone in its place. Many bones are formed this way, particularly the long bones of the arms, legs, and ribs.

Endocistobil
A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.

Endocrine Adenomatoses, Familial
A group of autosomal dominant, often overlapping diseases characterized by hyperplasia or neoplasia of more than one endocrine gland, many of which are made up of APUD cells. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Endocrine Adenomatoses, Multiple
A group of autosomal dominant, often overlapping diseases characterized by hyperplasia or neoplasia of more than one endocrine gland, many of which are made up of APUD cells. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Endocrine Adenomatosis, Familial
A group of autosomal dominant, often overlapping diseases characterized by hyperplasia or neoplasia of more than one endocrine gland, many of which are made up of APUD cells. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Endocrine Adenomatosis, Multiple
A group of autosomal dominant, often overlapping diseases characterized by hyperplasia or neoplasia of more than one endocrine gland, many of which are made up of APUD cells. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Endocrine Bone Disease
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.

Endocrine Bone Diseases
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.

Endocrine Cancer
Tumors or cancer of the endocrine glands in general or unspecified.

Endocrine Cancers
Tumors or cancer of the endocrine glands in general or unspecified.

Endocrine Cell, Gastrointestinal
Cells found throughout the lining of the gastrointestinal tract that contain regulatory peptide hormones and/or biogenic amines. The substances are located in secretory granules and act in an endocrine or paracrine manner. Some of these substances are also found in neurons in the gut. There are at least 15 different types of endocrine cells of the gut. Some take up amine precursors and have been called APUD CELLS. However, most endocrine cells of the gut apparently have endodermal rather than neuroectodermal origin, so the relationship with APUD cells is not clear.

Endocrine Cells of Gut
Cells found throughout the lining of the gastrointestinal tract that contain regulatory peptide hormones and/or biogenic amines. The substances are located in secretory granules and act in an endocrine or paracrine manner. Some of these substances are also found in neurons in the gut. There are at least 15 different types of endocrine cells of the gut. Some take up amine precursors and have been called APUD CELLS. However, most endocrine cells of the gut apparently have endodermal rather than neuroectodermal origin, so the relationship with APUD cells is not clear.

Endocrine Cells, Gastrointestinal
Cells found throughout the lining of the gastrointestinal tract that contain regulatory peptide hormones and/or biogenic amines. The substances are located in secretory granules and act in an endocrine or paracrine manner. Some of these substances are also found in neurons in the gut. There are at least 15 different types of endocrine cells of the gut. Some take up amine precursors and have been called APUD CELLS. However, most endocrine cells of the gut apparently have endodermal rather than neuroectodermal origin, so the relationship with APUD cells is not clear.

Endocrine Diagnostic Technic
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.

Endocrine Diagnostic Technics
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.

Endocrine Diagnostic Technique
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.

Endocrine gland
One of the body's ductless glands from which a hormone is secreted directly into the bloodstream.

Endocrine glands
Glands that are ductless and release their secretions directly into the bloodstream.

Endocrine Glands
Glands that release hormones into the bloodstream. They affect how the body uses food (metabolism). They also influence other body functions. One endocrine gland is the pancreas. It releases insulin so the body can use sugar for energy.

Endocrine hormones
Hormones that are secreted from a discrete gland and then travel through the bloodstream to target tissues.

Endocrine pancreas
The part of the pancreas that produces hormones that govern sugar metabolism. Compare with the exocrine pancreas.

Endocrine Surgical Procedures
Surgery performed on any endocrine gland.

Endocrine System
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.

Endocrine Systems
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.

Endocrine Tuberculoses
Tuberculous infection of the endocrine glands.

Endocrine Tuberculosis
Tuberculous infection of the endocrine glands.

Endocrine-Like Syndrome, Neoplastic
Endocrine syndromes due to hormone production by neoplasms of non-endocrine tissue, or by other than the usual endocrine tissues. They are often the first indication of a previously undetected neoplasm.

Endocrine-Like Syndromes, Neoplastic
Endocrine syndromes due to hormone production by neoplasms of non-endocrine tissue, or by other than the usual endocrine tissues. They are often the first indication of a previously undetected neoplasm.

Endocrinelike Syndrome, Neoplastic
Endocrine syndromes due to hormone production by neoplasms of non-endocrine tissue, or by other than the usual endocrine tissues. They are often the first indication of a previously undetected neoplasm.

Endocrinelike Syndromes, Neoplastic
Endocrine syndromes due to hormone production by neoplasms of non-endocrine tissue, or by other than the usual endocrine tissues. They are often the first indication of a previously undetected neoplasm.

Endocrinologist
A physician trained in diagnosing and treating disorders of hormone-secreting (endocrine) organs. These organs include the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, the pituitary, the pineal body and the gonads.

Endocrinology
The study of hormones. A more inclusive definition would be the study of biological communications.

Endocrinology and Metabolism (Specialty)
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the endocrine system.

Endocrinopathy
Literally, a disease of an endocrine gland. A medical term for a hormone problem. For example, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, etc.

Endocytic Vesicle
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.

Endocytic Vesicles
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.

Endocytoses
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.

Endocytosis
The process by which extracellular molecules (including hormones) enter a cell.

Endod
A plant species of the family PHYTOLACCACEAE. The root has been used in traditional medicine and contains SAPONINS used to poison SNAILS.

Endodeoxyribonuclease BpeI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endodeoxyribonuclease ECoRI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endodeoxyribonuclease HpaII
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endodeoxyribonuclease HsaI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endodeoxyribonucleases
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.

Endoderm
One of the three primary germ cell layers -- the other two are the mesoderm and ectoderm -- in the very early embryo. The endoderm is the innermost of the three layers. It differentiates to give rise first to the embryonic gut and then to the linings of respiratory and digestive tracts and the liver and pancreas.

Endodermal
Pertaining to the endoderm or to tissues derived from the endoderm.

Endodermal Sinus Tumor
An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)

Endodermal Sinus Tumors
An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)

Endodermophyton
A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.

Endoderms
The inner of the three germ layers of the embryo.

Endodontic Endosseous Implantation
Insertion of a tapered rod through the root canal into the periapical osseous structure to lengthen the existing root and provide individual tooth stabilization.

Endodontic Endosseous Implantations
Insertion of a tapered rod through the root canal into the periapical osseous structure to lengthen the existing root and provide individual tooth stabilization.

Endodontic Stabilization
Insertion of a tapered rod through the root canal into the periapical osseous structure to lengthen the existing root and provide individual tooth stabilization.

Endodontic Stabilizations
Insertion of a tapered rod through the root canal into the periapical osseous structure to lengthen the existing root and provide individual tooth stabilization.

Endodontically-Treated Teeth
A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)

Endodontically-Treated Tooth
A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)

Endodontics
A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).

Endodontist
Specialist who treats injuries, diseases and infections of the tooth pulp (nerve chamber).

Endogenous
Produced from within.

Endogenous Depression
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Endogenous Depressions
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Endogenous Mitogens
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.

Endogenous Nitrate Vasodilator
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.

Endogenous Opiates
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and pro-opiomelanocortin, respectively. There are also at least three classes of opioid receptors, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.

Endogenous Oscillator
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena in plants and animals.

Endogenous Oscillators
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena in plants and animals.

Endogenous Retrovirus
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.

Endogenous Retrovirus, Human
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.

Endogenous Retroviruses
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.

Endogenous Retroviruses, Human
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.

Endogenous Substances Receptors
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.

Endoglucanase
An enzyme isolated from fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans. EC 3.2.1.4.

Endoglucanase A
An enzyme isolated from fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans. EC 3.2.1.4.

Endoglucanase C
An enzyme isolated from fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans. EC 3.2.1.4.

Endoglucanase E
An enzyme isolated from fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans. EC 3.2.1.4.

Endoglucanase IV
An enzyme isolated from fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans. EC 3.2.1.4.

Endoglucanase Y
An enzyme isolated from fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans. EC 3.2.1.4.

Endoglucosidase H
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endoglycosidase F
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endographin
A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.

Endohexosaminidase F
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endohexosaminidase H
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and glycoproteins. EC 3.2.1.96.

Endolaminarinase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman. EC 3.2.1.39.

Endolimax
A genus of ameboid protozoa found in the intestines of vertebrates and invertebrates.

Endoluminal Repair
Endovascular reconstruction of an artery, which may include the removal of atheromatous plaque and/or the endothelial lining as well as simple dilatation. These are procedures performed by catheterization. When reconstruction of an artery is performed surgically, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.

Endoluminal Repairs
Endovascular reconstruction of an artery, which may include the removal of atheromatous plaque and/or the endothelial lining as well as simple dilatation. These are procedures performed by catheterization. When reconstruction of an artery is performed surgically, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.

Endolymph
The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Endolymphatic Duct
Duct connecting the endolymphatic sac with the membranous labyrinth.

Endolymphatic Ducts
Duct connecting the endolymphatic sac with the membranous labyrinth.

Endolymphatic Injection
Injections into the lymph nodes or the lymphatic system.

Endolymphatic Injections
Injections into the lymph nodes or the lymphatic system.

Endolymphatic Sac
The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct.

Endolymphatic Sacs
The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct.

Endolymphs
The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Endolysin, T7
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.

Endometrial ablation
Removal of the lining of the womb. Removing the uterine lining decreases menstrual flow or stops it completely. Ablation means removal or excision, usually surgically. The word comes from the Latin ablatum meaning to carry away.

Endometrial cancer
Cancer of the womb (the uterus ). Endometrial cancer occurs most often in women between the ages of 55 and 70 years. It accounts for about 6% of cancer in women. Women at elevated risk for endometrial cancer include those who are obese, who have few or no children, who began menstruating at a young age, who had a late menopause, and women of high socioeconomic status. It is thought that most of these risk factors are related to hormones, especially excess estrogen.

Endometrial Cancer
Tumors or cancer of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus.

Endometrial Cancers
Tumors or cancer of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus.

Endometrial Cycle
The period of the regularly recurring physiologic changes in the endometrium occurring during the reproductive period in human females and some primates and culminating in partial sloughing of the endometrium (MENSTRUATION).

Endometrial Cycles
The period of the regularly recurring physiologic changes in the endometrium occurring during the reproductive period in human females and some primates and culminating in partial sloughing of the endometrium (MENSTRUATION).

Endometrial hyperplasia
Abnormal thickening of the endometrium caused by excessive cell growth.

Endometrial Hyperplasia
Abnormal overgrowth of endometrium. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Endometrial Hyperplasias
Abnormal overgrowth of endometrium. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Endometrial implants
Fragments of endometrium that relocate outside of the uterus, such as in the muscular wall of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, or intestine, and bleed monthly just as endometrium does in the uterus.

Endometrial Neoplasm
Tumors or cancer of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus.

Endometrial Neoplasms
Tumors or cancer of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus.

Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma
A highly malignant neoplasm of the endometrium, arising from the endometrial stroma. It represents one type of stromal tumor, the other being endolymphatic stromal myosis. They are differentiated on the basis of the number of mitoses per 10 high power fields: endometrial stromal sarcoma has 10 or more mitoses, endolymphatic stromal myosis fewer. Stroma sarcoma is seen most often between the ages of 45 and 50. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1146)

Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas
A highly malignant neoplasm of the endometrium, arising from the endometrial stroma. It represents one type of stromal tumor, the other being endolymphatic stromal myosis. They are differentiated on the basis of the number of mitoses per 10 high power fields: endometrial stromal sarcoma has 10 or more mitoses, endolymphatic stromal myosis fewer. Stroma sarcoma is seen most often between the ages of 45 and 50. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1146)

Endometrioid Carcinoma
Ovarian carcinoma which resembles typical carcinoma of the endometrium and may be seen with a synchronous endometrial carcinoma. When they appear together, both tend to be of low stage. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1665)

Endometrioid Carcinomas
Ovarian carcinoma which resembles typical carcinoma of the endometrium and may be seen with a synchronous endometrial carcinoma. When they appear together, both tend to be of low stage. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1665)

Endometrioses
A condition in which tissue more or less perfectly resembling the uterine mucous membrane (the endometrium) and containing typical endometrial granular and stromal elements occurs aberrantly in various locations in the pelvic cavity.

Endometriosis
A condition in which tissue more or less perfectly resembling the uterine mucous membrane (the endometrium) and containing typical endometrial granular and stromal elements occurs aberrantly in various locations in the pelvic cavity.

Endometriosis interna
Also known as adenomyosis this is a common benign condition of the uterus in which the endometrium (the mucous membrane lining the inside of the uterus) grows into the myometrium (the uterine musculature located just outside the endometrium). The endometrium and myometrium under normal circumstances live adjacent to one another as discrete neighbors. In adenomyosis, the endometrium trespasses upon the myometrium. The myometrium may respond to this intrusion with muscular overgrowth.

Endometriosis uterina
Also known as adenomyosis, this is a common benign condition of the uterus in which the endometrium (the mucous membrane lining the inside of the uterus) grows into the myometrium (the uterine musculature located just outside the endometrium). The endometrium and myometrium under normal circumstances live adjacent to one another as discrete neighbors. In adenomyosis, the endometrium trespasses upon the myometrium. The myometrium may respond to this intrusion with muscular overgrowth.

Endometritides
Inflammation of the endometrium. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Endometritis
Inflammation of the endometrium. The endometrium is the inner layer of the womb (uterus).

Endometrium
The lining of the uterus or womb. Structurally, it is a mucous membrane.

Endometrium Cancer
Tumors or cancer of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus.

Endometrium Cancers
Tumors or cancer of the inner mucous membrane of the uterus.

Endomorph
A particular category of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique). The typology was devised by the American psychologist William Herbert Sheldon (1899-1977). Somatotypes have been related to personality in early studies.

Endomorphs
A particular category of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique). The typology was devised by the American psychologist William Herbert Sheldon (1899-1977). Somatotypes have been related to personality in early studies.

Endomycetales
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.

Endomycopsis
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.

Endomyocardial Fibroses
A disease characterized by thickening of the endocardium, and frequently the inner third of the myocardium. The left ventricle is most frequently involved. Cardiomegaly and congestive heart failure may also be present.

Endomyocardial Fibrosis
A disease characterized by thickening of the endocardium, and frequently the inner third of the myocardium. The left ventricle is most frequently involved. Cardiomegaly and congestive heart failure may also be present.

Endoneurium
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.

Endoneuriums
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.

Endonexin II
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human placenta and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic phospholipase A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.

Endonuclease
An enzyme that cleaves a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) at specific internal sites in the nucleotide base sequence.

Endonuclease AacI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease AaeI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease AccEBI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Ali12257I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Ali12258I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease AliI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Asp52I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BamFI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BamHI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BamKI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BamNI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BbrI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BnaI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BpeI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Bst1503
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BstFI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease BstI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Cfr32I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease ChuI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease DdsI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Eco159I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Eco65I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Eco82I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Eco98I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease EcoRI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease EcoVIII
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease GdoI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease GinI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease GoxI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Hin1076III
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Hin173I
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease HinbIII
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease HindIII
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease HinfII
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease HinJCII
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease HpaII
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease HsuI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease LlaCI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease Mapping, Restriction
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.

Endonuclease Mappings, Restriction
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.

Endonuclease MkiI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease MleI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease NasBI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease NspSAIV
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease P1
An enzyme that catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage to 5-phosphomononucleotides and 5-phosphooligonucleotide end-products. It has a preference for single-stranded substrates but is active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.30.1.

Endonuclease RhsI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease RsrI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease S 1
An enzyme that catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage to 5-phosphomononucleotides and 5-phosphooligonucleotide end-products. It has a preference for single-stranded substrates but is active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.30.1.

Endonuclease S-1
An enzyme that catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage to 5-phosphomononucleotides and 5-phosphooligonucleotide end-products. It has a preference for single-stranded substrates but is active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.30.1.

Endonuclease S1, Aspergillus
An enzyme that catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage to 5-phosphomononucleotides and 5-phosphooligonucleotide end-products. It has a preference for single-stranded substrates but is active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.30.1.

Endonuclease SolI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease SsoI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease, ApaCI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease, HapII
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonuclease, Neurospora
An enzyme that catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage to 5-phosphomononucleotides and 5-phosphooligonucleotide end-products. It has a preference for single-stranded substrates but is active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.30.1.

Endonuclease, P1
An enzyme that catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage to 5-phosphomononucleotides and 5-phosphooligonucleotide end-products. It has a preference for single-stranded substrates but is active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.30.1.

Endonuclease, SolI
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.

Endonucleases
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.

Endopeduncular Nucleus
A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.

Endopeduncularis, Nucleus
A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.

Endopeptidase
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of peptide bonds within a polypeptide or protein. Peptidase refers to the fact that it acts on peptide bonds and endopeptidase refers to the fact that these are internal bonds. An exopeptide catalyzes the cleavage of the terminal or penultimate peptide bond, releasing a single amino acid or dipeptide from the peptide chain.

Endopeptidase 24.11
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. EC 3.4.24.11.

Endopeptidase 24.11, Neutral
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. EC 3.4.24.11.

Endopeptidase Inhibitors
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).

Endopeptidase K
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of keratin, and of other proteins with subtilisin-like specificity. It hydrolyses peptide amides. Endopeptidase K is from the mold Tritirachium album Limber. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.21.64.

Endopeptidase, Neutral
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. EC 3.4.24.11.

Endopeptidase-24.11
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. EC 3.4.24.11.

Endopeptidases
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES. They are classified primarily by their catalytic mechanism. Specificity is used only for identification of individual enzymes. They comprise the SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, EC 3.4.21; CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, EC 3.4.22; ASPARTIC ENDOPEPTIDASES, EC 3.4.23, METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES, EC 3.4.24; and a group of enzymes yet to be assigned to any of the above sub-classes, EC 3.4.99. EC 3.4.-.

Endopeptidases, Serine
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis. EC 3.4.21.

Endoperoxide Analogues, Prostaglandin
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.

Endoperoxide Synthetase, Prostaglandin
An enzyme complex that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins from the appropriate unsaturated fatty acid, molecular oxygen, and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.14.99.1.

Endoperoxides, Prostaglandin
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.

Endoperoxides, Synthetic Prostaglandin
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.

Endophthalmitides
Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye; not all layers of the uvea are affected. Fungi, necrosis of intraocular tumors, and retained intraocular foreign bodies often cause a purulent endophthalmitis.

Endophthalmitis


Endoplasmic reticulum
A network or system of folded membranes and interconnecting tubules distributed within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The membranes form enclosed or semienclosed spaces. The endoplasmic reticulum functions in storage and transport, and as a point of attachment of ribosomes during protein synthesis.

Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Endoplasmic Reticulum, Agranular
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.

Endoplasmic Reticulum, Granular
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.

Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.

Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.

Endopolygalacturonase
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.

ENDOR
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Endorectal MRI
An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) done from inside the rectum. To do such as MRI, a surface coil within an inflated latex balloon can be positioned in the rectum. The MRI is read (interpreted) and specific areas of suspicion are identified. The MRI data can be mapped onto a 3-dimensional model to determine strategy.

Endoribonuclease H
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms (particularly calf thymus) as well as retroviruses. EC 3.1.26.4.

Endoribonuclease H (Calf Thymus)
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms (particularly calf thymus) as well as retroviruses. EC 3.1.26.4.

Endoribonucleases
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.

Endorphenyl
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN, DOPAMINE, noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.

Endorphin
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the pro-opiomelanocortin precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.

Endorphin ACTH Precursor
A precursor protein, MW 30,000, synthesized mainly in the anterior pituitary gland but also found in the hypothalamus, brain, and several peripheral tissues. It incorporates the amino acid sequences of ACTH and beta-lipotropin. These two hormones, in turn, contain the biologically active peptides MSH, corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide, alpha-lipotropin, endorphins, and methionine enkephalin.

Endorphin Receptor
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.

Endorphin Receptors
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.

Endorphin, alpha
An endogenous opioid peptide derived from the pro-opiomelanocortin precursor. It differs from GAMMA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid.

Endorphin, beta
A peptide consisting of amino acid sequence 61-91 of the endogenous pituitary hormone BETA-LIPOTROPIN. The first four amino acids show a common tetrapeptide sequence with METHIONINE- and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN. The compound shows opiate-like activity. Injection of beta-endorphin induces a profound analgesia of the whole body for several hours. This action is reversed after administration of naloxone.

Endorphin, C-Fragment
A peptide consisting of amino acid sequence 61-91 of the endogenous pituitary hormone BETA-LIPOTROPIN. The first four amino acids show a common tetrapeptide sequence with METHIONINE- and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN. The compound shows opiate-like activity. Injection of beta-endorphin induces a profound analgesia of the whole body for several hours. This action is reversed after administration of naloxone.

Endorphin, gamma
An endogenous opioid peptide derived from the pro-opiomelanocortin precursor peptide. It differs from ALPHA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid.

Endorphin-ACTH Precursor
A precursor protein, MW 30,000, synthesized mainly in the anterior pituitary gland but also found in the hypothalamus, brain, and several peripheral tissues. It incorporates the amino acid sequences of ACTH and beta-lipotropin. These two hormones, in turn, contain the biologically active peptides MSH, corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide, alpha-lipotropin, endorphins, and methionine enkephalin.

Endorphins
The general term to refer to all of the body's own endogenous morphinelike substances. In chemical structure, they are neuropeptides. They are active as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.

Endoscope
A small, flexible tube with a light and a lens on the end. It is used to look into the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, colon, or rectum. It can also be used to take tissue from the body for testing or to take color photographs of the inside of the body. Colonoscopes and sigmoidoscopes are types of endoscopes.

Endoscope, Gastrointestinal
Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.

Endoscopes
Instruments for the visual examination of interior parts of hollow structures of the body.

Endoscopes, Gastrointestinal
Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.

Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgeries
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.

Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.

Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgical Procedures
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.

Endoscopic gastrostomy, percutaneous (PEG)
A surgical procedure for placing a feeding tube without having to perform an open laparotomy (operation on the abdomen). The aim of PEG is to feed those who cannot swallow. PEG may be done by a surgeon, otolaryngologist (ENT specialist), or gastroenterologist (GI specialist). It is done in a hospital or outpatient surgical facility. Local anesthesia (usually lidocaine or another spray) is used to anesthetize the throat. An endoscope (a flexible, lighted instrument) is passed through the mouth, throat and esophagus to the stomach. The surgeon then makes a small incision (cut) in the skin of the abdomen and pushes an intravenous cannula (an IV tube) through the skin into the stomach and sutures (ties) it in place. The patient can usually go home the same day or the next morning. Possible complications include wound infection (as in any kind of surgery) and dislodging or malfunction of the tube. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy may be a mouthful (as a term) but it describes the procedure accurately. A gastrostomy (a surgical opening into the stomach) is made percutaneously (through the skin) using an endoscope to put the feeding tube in place. PEG takes less time, carries less risk and costs less than a classic surgical gastrostomy which requires opening the abdomen.

Endoscopic Hemostases
Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.

Endoscopic Hemostasis
Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.

Endoscopic papillotomy
An operation to cut the muscle between the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct. The operation uses a catheter and a wire to remove gallstones or other blockages. Also called endoscopic sphincterotomy.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Abbreviated ERCP. A procedure done to diagnose and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas, including gallstones, inflammatory strictures (scars), leaks (from trauma and surgery), and cancer. ERCP combines the use of x-rays and an endoscope (a long, flexible, lighted tube). Through it, the physician can see the inside of the stomach and duodenum and inject dye into the bile ducts and pancreas so they can be seen on x-ray. ERCP takes 30 minutes to 2 hours. Possible complications of ERCP include pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), infection, bleeding, and perforation of the duodenum.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
A test using an x-ray to look into the bile and pancreatic ducts. The doctor inserts an endoscope through the mouth into the duodenum and bile ducts. Dye is sent through the tube into the ducts. The dye makes the ducts show up on an x-ray.

Endoscopic sphincterotomy
An operation to cut the muscle between the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct. The operation uses a catheter and a wire to remove gallstones or other blockages. Also called endoscopic papillotomy.

Endoscopic Surgical Procedure
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on interior parts of the body.

Endoscopic Surgical Procedures
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on interior parts of the body.

Endoscopic Ultrasonographies
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The ""endo-"" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.

Endoscopic Ultrasonography
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The ""endo-"" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.

Endoscopic ultrasound
Abbreviated EUS. A procedure that combines endoscopy and ultrasound to obtain images and information about the digestive tract and the surrounding tissue and organs. In EUS a small ultrasound transducer is installed on the tip of the endoscope allowing the transducer to get close to the organs inside the body so the resultant ultrasound images are often more accurate and detailed than ones obtained by traditional ultrasound.

Endoscopic, Digestive System, Surgery
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.

Endoscopic, Digestive System, Surgical Procedure
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.

Endoscopies
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on interior parts of the body.

Endoscopies, Digestive System
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.

Endoscopies, Echo
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The ""endo-"" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.

Endoscopies, Gastrointestinal
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.

Endoscopies, Pleural
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.

Endoscopies, Surgical
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on interior parts of the body.

Endoscopies, Ultrasonic
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The ""endo-"" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.

Endoscopies, Uterine
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.

Endoscopy
Procedure in which a lighted viewing instrument (endoscope) is used to look inside a body cavity or organ to diagnose or treat disorders.

Endoscopy, Digestive System
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.

Endoscopy, Echo
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The ""endo-"" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.

Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.

Endoscopy, Pleural
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.

Endoscopy, Surgical
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on interior parts of the body.

Endoscopy, Ultrasonic
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The ""endo-"" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.

Endoscopy, upper
A common type of endoscopy is upper endoscopy, also called esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). In this procedure, a thin flexible instrument is advanced through the mouth to evaluate or treat problems of the esophagus, stomach, and beginning part of the small intestine. Endoscopy itself is a broad term used to described examining the inside of the body using an lighted, flexible instrument called an endoscope. In general, an endoscope is introduced into the body through a natural opening such as the mouth in the case of upper endoscopy.

Endoscopy, Uterine
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.

Endosol extra
Endosol extra is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): calcium chloride; dextrose; glutathione disulfide; magnesium chloride; potassium chloride; sodium bicarbonate; sodium chloride; sodium phosphate.

Endosome
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.

Endosomes
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.

Endosonographies
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The ""endo-"" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.

Endosonography
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The ""endo-"" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.

Endospore Forming Bacteria
A group of rods or cocci whose taxonomic affinities are uncertain. They form endospores, thick-walled bodies formed within the vegetative cells of certain bacteria, able to withstand adverse environmental conditions for prolonged periods.

Endospore-Forming Bacteria
A group of rods or cocci whose taxonomic affinities are uncertain. They form endospores, thick-walled bodies formed within the vegetative cells of certain bacteria, able to withstand adverse environmental conditions for prolonged periods.

Endosprin
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)

Endosseous Dental Implantation
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.

Endosseous Implantation
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.

Endosseous Implantation, Endodontic
Insertion of a tapered rod through the root canal into the periapical osseous structure to lengthen the existing root and provide individual tooth stabilization.

Endosseous Implantations, Endodontic
Insertion of a tapered rod through the root canal into the periapical osseous structure to lengthen the existing root and provide individual tooth stabilization.

Endostatin
Endostatin is a piece (a fragment) of a protein, collagen 18, found in all blood vessels. This fragment is normally secreted by tumors. It appears to halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis) which is necessary to tumor development. Endostatin may, it is hoped, represent a prototype for a new class of agents with which to treat cancer.

Endosulfan
A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)

Endothelial
Relating to the endothelium, the layer of flat cells lining the closed spaces of the body such as the inside of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, the heart, and body cavities. By contrast, the outside layer of cells that covers all the free, open surfaces of the body including the skin and mucous membranes that communicate with the outside of the body is called the epithelium.

Endothelial Cell Derived Growth Factors
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.

Endothelial Cell-Derived Growth Factors
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.

Endothelial cells
The cells that line the vascular system. They act as a barrier between the bloodstream and target cells that hormones must pass through in order to reach their receptors and exert their biological action.

Endothelial Growth Factor
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.

Endothelial Growth Factors
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.

Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule 1
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.

Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.

Endothelial Plasminogen Activator Inhibitors
Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. Four inhibitors, all belonging to the serpin family of proteins, have been implicated in plasminogen activation inhibition. They are PAI-1, PAI-2, protease-nexin, and PROTEIN C INHIBITOR; (PAI-3). All inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.

Endothelial progenitor cell
A primitive cell made in the bone marrow that can enter the bloodstream and go to areas of blood vessel injury to help repair the damage. The number of endothelial progenitor cells in the blood is a risk factor for vascular disease. Depletion or senescence of endothelial progenitor cells may contribute to blood vessel disease.

Endothelin
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.

Endothelin 1
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)

Endothelin 2
A 21-amino acid peptide produced predominantly within the kidney and intestine, with smaller amounts produced in the myocardium, placenta, and uterus, but the cells of origin are not clear. Endothelin-2 has no unique physiologic functions, as compared with endothelin-1. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)

Endothelin 3
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)

Endothelin Receptor
Cell surface proteins that bind endothelin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.

Endothelin Receptors
Cell surface proteins that bind endothelin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.

Endothelin-1
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)

Endothelin-2
A 21-amino acid peptide produced predominantly within the kidney and intestine, with smaller amounts produced in the myocardium, placenta, and uterus, but the cells of origin are not clear. Endothelin-2 has no unique physiologic functions, as compared with endothelin-1. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)

Endothelin-3
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)

Endothelins
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.

Endothelins Receptors
Cell surface proteins that bind endothelin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.

Endothelium
The interior surfaces of blood vessels. The endothelium, which is the site of atherosclerosis in arteries, is composed of specialized cells called epithelial cells.

Endothelium Dependent Relaxing Factor
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.

Endothelium Derived Growth Factor Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine, NADPH, and oxygen to citrulline, nitric oxide, and NADP+. The enzyme found in brain, but not that induced in lung or liver by endotoxin, requires calcium. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.14.13.39.

Endothelium Derived Relaxant Factor
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.

Endothelium Derived Relaxing Factor
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.

Endothelium Derived Vasoconstrictor Factor Receptors
Cell surface proteins that bind endothelin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.

Endothelium, Anterior Chamber
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.

Endothelium, Capillary
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components from interstitium to lumen; this function has been most intensively studied in the blood capillaries.

Endothelium, Corneal
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.

Endothelium, Lymphatic
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.

Endothelium, Vascular
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components from interstitium to lumen; this function has been most intensively studied in the blood capillaries.

Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factor
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.

Endothelium-Derived Growth Factor Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine, NADPH, and oxygen to citrulline, nitric oxide, and NADP+. The enzyme found in brain, but not that induced in lung or liver by endotoxin, requires calcium. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.14.13.39.

Endothelium-Derived Nitric Oxide
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.

Endothelium-Derived Relaxant Factor
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.

Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.

Endothelium-Derived Vasoconstrictor Factors
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.

Endotheliums
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.

Endotheliums, Capillary
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components from interstitium to lumen; this function has been most intensively studied in the blood capillaries.

Endotheliums, Lymphatic
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.

Endotheliums, Vascular
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components from interstitium to lumen; this function has been most intensively studied in the blood capillaries.

Endotherm
An endotherm is a warm-blooded animal (such as homo sapiens). Another term for us warm-blooded creatures is homeotherm. An endotherm or homeotherm is as opposed to a poikilotherm (an organism such as a frog that is cold-blooded) and a stenotherm (a creature that can only survive only within a very narrow temperature range).

Endotoxemia
Presence in the blood of endotoxins.

Endotoxemias
A condition characterized by the presence of endotoxins in the blood. If endotoxemia is the result of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, shock may occur.

Endotoxic Shock
Shock due to circulatory insufficiency caused most commonly by gram-negative BACTEREMIA. It is less often the result of the persistent presence of other micro-organisms in the blood (FUNGEMIA; VIREMIA); in rare instances, it is caused by gram-positive organisms, but with different symptomatology.

Endotoxins
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.

Endotracheal intubation
Passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea for maintenance of the airway during anesthesia or for maintenance of an imperiled airway.

Endotracheal tube
A tube which is inserted in the airway, by ACLS personnel, to provide a secure airway. This is the definitive airway control technique.

Endourologist
An endourologist is a urologist with special expertise in navigating, using endoscopic optical instruments and other tools, inside the kidney, ureter and bladder. Endourologists are specialists in treating diseases of these organs.

Endowment
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.

Endowments
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.

Endoxan
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the liver to form the active ALDOPHOSPHAMIDE. It is used in the treatment of lymphomas, leukemias, etc. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.

Endozepine
An 86-amino acid polypeptide, found in central and peripheral tissues, that displaces diazepam from the benzodiazepine recognition site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (RECEPTORS, GABA). It also binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters and serves as an acyl-CoA transporter. This peptide regulates lipid metabolism.



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Endemic typhus
Murine typhus, an acute infectious disease with fever, headache, and rash, all quite similar to, but milder than, epidemic typhus, caused by a related microorganism, Rickettsia typhi (mooseri), transmitted to humans by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis). The animal reservoir includes rats, mice and other rodents. Murine typhus occurs sporadically worldwide but is more prevalent in congested rat-infested urban areas. Also known as rat-flea typhus or urban typhus of Malaya.

Endocannabinoid
A marijuana-like substance. Endocannabinoid is abbreviated EC.

Endocardial
Pertaining to the endocardium, the inside lining of the heart.

Endocervical curettage
The removal of tissue from the inside of the cervix using a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette.

Endochondral bone
Any bone that develops in and replaces cartilage. The cartilage is partially or entirely destroyed by the process of calcification. The cartilage is then resorbed (reabsorbed), leaving bone in its place. Many bones are formed this way, particularly the long bones of the arms, legs, and ribs.

Endocrine

Endocrinopathy
Literally, a disease of an endocrine gland. A medical term for a hormone problem. For example, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, etc.

Endoderm
One of the three primary germ cell layers -- the other two are the mesoderm and ectoderm -- in the very early embryo. The endoderm is the innermost of the three layers. It differentiates to give rise first to the embryonic gut and then to the linings of respiratory and digestive tracts and the liver and pancreas.

Endodermal
Pertaining to the endoderm or to tissues derived from the endoderm.

Endometrial cancer
Cancer of the womb (the uterus ). Endometrial cancer occurs most often in women between the ages of 55 and 70 years. It accounts for about 6% of cancer in women. Women at elevated risk for endometrial cancer include those who are obese, who have few or no children, who began menstruating at a young age, who had a late menopause, and women of high socioeconomic status. It is thought that most of these risk factors are related to hormones, especially excess estrogen.

Endometriosis interna
Also known as adenomyosis this is a common benign condition of the uterus in which the endometrium (the mucous membrane lining the inside of the uterus) grows into the myometrium (the uterine musculature located just outside the endometrium). The endometrium and myometrium under normal circumstances live adjacent to one another as discrete neighbors. In adenomyosis, the endometrium trespasses upon the myometrium. The myometrium may respond to this intrusion with muscular overgrowth.

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