Ear bones
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  Ear bones



Ear bones

   The malleus, incus, and stapes.

RELATED TERMS
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Malleus
A small bone in the middle ear, often called the hammer.

Incus
One of three ossicles of the middle ear. It conducts sound vibrations from the MALLEUS to the STAPES.

Stapes
A small bone of the middle ear. Also called the stirrup.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Ear Acupuncture
Acupuncture therapy by inserting needles in the ear. It is used to control pain and for treating various ailments.

Ear Acupunctures
Acupuncture therapy by inserting needles in the ear. It is used to control pain and for treating various ailments.

Ear canal, self-cleaning
Most of the time the ear canals are self-cleaning, that is, there is a slow and orderly migration of ear canal skin from the eardrum to the outer opening. Old earwax is constantly being transported from the deeper areas of the ear canal to the opening where it usually dries, flakes, and falls out.

Ear Cancer
Tumors or cancer of the internal, external, or middle ear.

Ear Cancers
Tumors or cancer of the internal, external, or middle ear.

Ear Cartilage
Cartilages of the auricle (pinna) and the external acoustic meatus.

Ear Cartilages
Cartilages of the auricle (pinna) and the external acoustic meatus.

Ear cleaning (by a doctor)
When so much wax accumulates that it blocks the ear canal (and hearing), your physician may have to wash it out, vacuum it, or remove it with special instruments. Alternatively, your physician may prescribe ear drops what are designed to soften the wax (such as Cerumenex).

Ear cleaning (yourself)
Never put anything smaller than your elbow in your ear! Wax is not formed in the deep part of the ear canal near the eardrum, but only in the outer part of the canal. So when a patient has wax pushed up against the eardrum, it is often because he has been probing his ear with such things as cotton-tipped swabs (such as Q-Tips), bobby pins, or twisted napkin corners. Such objects only serve as ramrods to push the wax in deeper. Also, the skin of the ear canal and the eardrum is very thin, fragile and easily injured. The ear canal is more prone to infection after it has been whipped clean of the "good" coating type wax. In addition, we have seen many perforated eardrums as a result of these efforts.

Ear Deformities, Acquired
Distortion or disfigurement of the ear caused by disease or injury after birth.

Ear Deformity, Acquired
Distortion or disfigurement of the ear caused by disease or injury after birth.

Ear Disease
Diseases of the ear, general or unspecified.

Ear Diseases
Diseases of the ear, general or unspecified.

Ear Effusion, Middle
Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.

Ear Effusions, Middle
Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.

Ear Implant, Middle
An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.

Ear Implants, Middle
An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.

Ear infection, middle (acute)
Acute middle ear infection, medically called acute otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear. Acute otitis media typically causes fluid in the middle ear accompanied by signs or symptoms of ear infection: a bulging eardrum usually accompanied by pain; or a perforated eardrum, often with drainage of purulent material (pus).

Ear Mold
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)

Ear Molds
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)

Ear Neoplasm
Tumors or cancer of the internal, external, or middle ear.

Ear Neoplasms
Tumors or cancer of the internal, external, or middle ear.

Ear piercing
The practice of using a needle or needle gun to make holes through the ear lobe or other parts of the ear for wearing jewelry. When done under hygienic conditions, there is little danger from ear piercing other than localized and transitory inflammation. Unhygienic conditions, handling the new piercing with unwashed hands, or the use of irritating jewelry can result in inflammation and/or infection. Infected ear piercings should be washed and then treated with antibiotic cream. One may choose to either allow the piercing to close or to use only non-irritating jewelry (usually gold or hypoallergenic plastic). The likelihood of inflammation and infection is greater for piercings that go through hard cartilage, as found on the side and top of the outer ear, than with the soft bottom lobe of the ear.

Ear pit
Tiny pit in front of the ear: preauricular pit. A minor anomaly of no great consequence in itself. More common in blacks than whites and in females than males. Can recur in families. The presence of 2 or more minor anomalies in a child increases the probability that the child has a major malformation.

Ear Protective Device
Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.

Ear Protective Devices
Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.

Ear puncture
Puncture of the ear drum may be due to an accident for example when something is stuck into the ear. Or it may be due to fluid pressure in the middle ear. Today the ear drum is occasionally punctured on purpose with surgery. A surgically placed tiny incision (a myringotomy) is made in the eardrum. Any fluid, usually thickened secretions, is removed and an ear tube may be inserted.

Ear ringing
Together with other abnormal ear noises, ear ringing is medically called tinnitus. Tinnitus can arise in any of the four sections of the ear: the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the brain. It can be due to many causes including ear infection, fluid in the ears, Meniere syndrome, medications such as aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aging, and ear trauma (such as from the noise of planes, firearms, or loud music). In rare situations, tinnitus may reflect an aneurysm or an acoustic neuroma (a benign tumor on the acoustic nerve). Woodwind players are more likely to experience tinnitus than other orchestral players, probably because they usually sit just in front of the brass. If tinnitus persists and its cause is unknown, a hearing test (audiogram) should be done. Measures can be taken to lessen the intensity of tinnitus or to mask it.

Ear tag
Common minor anomaly, a rudimentary tag of ear tissue, often containing a core cartilage, usually located just in front of the ear (auricle). Therefore also called preauricular tag. The presence of 2 or more minor anomalies in a child increases the probability that the child has a major malformation.

Ear thermometer
A thermometer that registers body temperature via the ear canal.

Ear tubes
Formally known as tympanostomy tubes, ear tubes are small plastic tubes inserted into the eardrum (the tympanum) to keep the middle ear aerated for a prolonged period of time. To put the tubes in place, a myringotomy (a surgically placed tiny incision in the eardrum) is done. Any fluid, usually thickened secretions, will be removed. The ear tubes usually remain in place for 6 months to several years. Water should not be allowed to enter the ear canal while the tubes are in place. Eventually, they will move out of the eardrum (extrude) and fall into the ear canal. The doctor may remove the tube during a routine future office visit or it may simply fall out of the ear without the child realizing it.

Ear Ventilation, Middle
Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) otitis media, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the tympanic membrane.

Ear Ventilations, Middle
Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) otitis media, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the tympanic membrane.

Ear wax
A natural wax-like substance secreted by special glands in the skin on the outer part of the ear canal. It repels water, and traps dust and sand particles. Usually a small amount of wax accumulates, and then dries up and falls out of the ear canal carrying with it unwanted particles. Ear wax is helpful in normal amounts and serves to coat the skin of the ear canal where it acts as a temporary water repellent. The absence of ear wax may result in dry, itchy ears, and even infection. There are two types of ear wax: wet and dry. Most whites and blacks have the wet type while most Asians and Native Americans have the dry type. The gene for wet ear wax on chromosome 16 appears to predispose to breast cancer.

Ear Wax
The yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by vestigial apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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E coli hemorrhagic diarrhea
Bloody colitis (inflammation of the bowel) caused by E. coli, usually by the strain E. coli 0157:H7. The diarrhea is severe with painful abdominal cramps, gross blood in the stool, and lasts for 6 to 8 days. Most commonly, E. coli 01257:H7 comes from eating raw or undercooked ground beef (hamburger) or from drinking raw milk or contaminated water. Less commonly, E coli O157:H7 can be transmitted from one person to another.

E coli O157:H7
"A dangerous form of Escherichia coli, the colon bacillus, a bacterium that normally lives in the human colon. E. coli 0157:H7 is a major health problem, causing hemorrhagic colitis, the hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: Hemorrhagic colitis -- E coli O157:H7 causes about 20,000 cases of hemorrhagic colitis (bloody inflammation of the colon) a year in the US. The bacteria produce toxins that can damage the lining of the intestine. The colitis caused can be quite severe with painful abdominal cramps, diarrhea and grossly visible blood in the stool, lasting for 6 to 8 days. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) -- Some children infected with E. coli 0157:H7 develop the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Hemolytic"" refers to the breakup of red blood cells. This leads to anemia and a shortage of platelets (thrombocytopenia) which causes abnormal bleeding. ""Uremic"" refers to the acute kidney failure. Central nervous system problems with seizures and coma can also occur. The hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute kidney failure in infants and young children. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) -- Persons who get E. coli 0157:H7, particularly the elderly, can develop a syndrome similar to HUS called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) with anemia due to fragmentation of red blood cells, shortage of platelets (thrombocytopenia) with easy bruising, neurologic abnormalities, impaired kidney function, and fever.

E2F3
E2F transcription factor 3. E2F3 is a gene on chromosome 6p22 that is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. E2F3 may be a key gene in modulating the aggressivity of prostate cancer. E2F3 is present in a high proportion (67%) of prostate cancers. Men with prostate cancer exhibiting detectable E2F3 expression have poorer survival than those without detectable E2F3 expression.

Eagle syndrome
Inflammation of the styloid process, a spike-like projection sticking off the base of the skull. The tissues in the throat rub on this structure during the act of swallowing causing pain. The diagnosis of Eagle syndrome is made by history and an x-ray showing the abnormal styloid process. Anti-inflammatory drugs are the first line of treatment although surgical removal of the styloid process may be needed.

Ear
The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy textbooks. They are the outer ear (the part we see along the sides of our head behind the temples), the middle ear, and the inner ear. But in terms of function, the ear has four parts: those three and the brain. Hearing thus involves all parts of the ear as well as the auditory cortex of the brain. The external ear helps concentrate the vibrations of air on the ear drum and make it vibrate. These vibrations are transmitted by a chain of little bones in the middle ear to the inner ear. There they stimulate the fibers of the auditory nerve to transmit impulses to the brain.

Ear bones

Ear canal, self-cleaning
Most of the time the ear canals are self-cleaning, that is, there is a slow and orderly migration of ear canal skin from the eardrum to the outer opening. Old earwax is constantly being transported from the deeper areas of the ear canal to the opening where it usually dries, flakes, and falls out.

Ear cleaning (by a doctor)
When so much wax accumulates that it blocks the ear canal (and hearing), your physician may have to wash it out, vacuum it, or remove it with special instruments. Alternatively, your physician may prescribe ear drops what are designed to soften the wax (such as Cerumenex).

Ear cleaning (yourself)
Never put anything smaller than your elbow in your ear! Wax is not formed in the deep part of the ear canal near the eardrum, but only in the outer part of the canal. So when a patient has wax pushed up against the eardrum, it is often because he has been probing his ear with such things as cotton-tipped swabs (such as Q-Tips), bobby pins, or twisted napkin corners. Such objects only serve as ramrods to push the wax in deeper. Also, the skin of the ear canal and the eardrum is very thin, fragile and easily injured. The ear canal is more prone to infection after it has been whipped clean of the "good" coating type wax. In addition, we have seen many perforated eardrums as a result of these efforts.

Ear infection, middle (acute)
Acute middle ear infection, medically called acute otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear. Acute otitis media typically causes fluid in the middle ear accompanied by signs or symptoms of ear infection: a bulging eardrum usually accompanied by pain; or a perforated eardrum, often with drainage of purulent material (pus).

Ear piercing
The practice of using a needle or needle gun to make holes through the ear lobe or other parts of the ear for wearing jewelry. When done under hygienic conditions, there is little danger from ear piercing other than localized and transitory inflammation. Unhygienic conditions, handling the new piercing with unwashed hands, or the use of irritating jewelry can result in inflammation and/or infection. Infected ear piercings should be washed and then treated with antibiotic cream. One may choose to either allow the piercing to close or to use only non-irritating jewelry (usually gold or hypoallergenic plastic). The likelihood of inflammation and infection is greater for piercings that go through hard cartilage, as found on the side and top of the outer ear, than with the soft bottom lobe of the ear.

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