E coli
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  E coli



E coli

   Short for Escherichia coli, the colon bacillus, a bacterium that normally resides in the human colon. E. coli has been studied intensively in genetics and molecular and cell biology because of its availability, its small genome size, its normal lack of pathogenicity (disease-causing ability), and its ease of growth in the laboratory. Most strains of E coli are quite harmless. However, some strains of E. coli are capable of causing disease, sometimes disease of deadly proportions. For example, an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 bacteria in the water supply hit Walkerton, Ontario in the year 2000; the E. coli affected about 2,000 people in and around Walkerton and were responsible for the deaths of some 18 people.

RELATED TERMS
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Escherichia
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.

Colon
Another name for the large intestine. The section of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum. An adult colon is approximately five to six feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and forming, storing and expelling waste.

Bacillus
A large family of bacteria that have a rod-like shape. They include the bacteria that cause food to spoil, and also those responsible for some types of diseases. Helpful members of the bacillus family are used to make antibiotics, or colonize the human intestinal tract and aid with digestion.

Bacterium
The singular of bacteria.

Genetics
The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other organisms. So, for example, there is human genetics, mouse genetics, fruitfly genetics, etc.

Molecular
Refers to the basic building blocks of the genetic material, such as DNA, genes and the other chemicals involved with the functioning of genes.

Cell
Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

Genome
The complete genetic material of an organism.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

Bacteria
Single-celled microorganisms which can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent upon another organism for life).



SIMILAR TERMS
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E coli hemorrhagic diarrhea
Bloody colitis (inflammation of the bowel) caused by E. coli, usually by the strain E. coli 0157:H7. The diarrhea is severe with painful abdominal cramps, gross blood in the stool, and lasts for 6 to 8 days. Most commonly, E. coli 01257:H7 comes from eating raw or undercooked ground beef (hamburger) or from drinking raw milk or contaminated water. Less commonly, E coli O157:H7 can be transmitted from one person to another.

E coli O157:H7
"A dangerous form of Escherichia coli, the colon bacillus, a bacterium that normally lives in the human colon. E. coli 0157:H7 is a major health problem, causing hemorrhagic colitis, the hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: Hemorrhagic colitis -- E coli O157:H7 causes about 20,000 cases of hemorrhagic colitis (bloody inflammation of the colon) a year in the US. The bacteria produce toxins that can damage the lining of the intestine. The colitis caused can be quite severe with painful abdominal cramps, diarrhea and grossly visible blood in the stool, lasting for 6 to 8 days. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) -- Some children infected with E. coli 0157:H7 develop the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Hemolytic"" refers to the breakup of red blood cells. This leads to anemia and a shortage of platelets (thrombocytopenia) which causes abnormal bleeding. ""Uremic"" refers to the acute kidney failure. Central nervous system problems with seizures and coma can also occur. The hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute kidney failure in infants and young children. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) -- Persons who get E. coli 0157:H7, particularly the elderly, can develop a syndrome similar to HUS called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) with anemia due to fragmentation of red blood cells, shortage of platelets (thrombocytopenia) with easy bruising, neurologic abnormalities, impaired kidney function, and fever.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Endothelium
The interior surfaces of blood vessels. The endothelium, which is the site of atherosclerosis in arteries, is composed of specialized cells called epithelial cells.

Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP)
A treatment for those with symptomatic coronary artery disease, not eligible for standard treatments of revascularization. During EECP, cuffs wrapped around the calves, thighs and buttocks are inflated and deflated, gently but firmly compressing the blood vessels in the lower limbs, increasing blood flow to the heart. EECP may stimulate the openings or formation of collateral vessels to create a "natural bypass" around narrowed or blocked arteries.

Erythrocyte (red blood cell, red cell, red corpuscle)
Red blood cell that delivers oxygen to tissues and removes carbon dioxide and other waste products.

Essential Fatty Acid
A type of fatty acid that the body cannot produce and which must be obtained from food; play a role in recovery after surgery, the making of cell membranes, and prevention of infection.

Exercise Stress Test
A test used to provide information about how the heart responds to stress. It usually involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike at increasing levels of difficulty, while the electrocardiogram, heart rate and blood pressure are monitored. When one is not able to do activity, medications may be used to "stress" the heart. This is called a pharmacological stress test.

E coli

E coli hemorrhagic diarrhea
Bloody colitis (inflammation of the bowel) caused by E. coli, usually by the strain E. coli 0157:H7. The diarrhea is severe with painful abdominal cramps, gross blood in the stool, and lasts for 6 to 8 days. Most commonly, E. coli 01257:H7 comes from eating raw or undercooked ground beef (hamburger) or from drinking raw milk or contaminated water. Less commonly, E coli O157:H7 can be transmitted from one person to another.

E coli O157:H7
"A dangerous form of Escherichia coli, the colon bacillus, a bacterium that normally lives in the human colon. E. coli 0157:H7 is a major health problem, causing hemorrhagic colitis, the hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: Hemorrhagic colitis -- E coli O157:H7 causes about 20,000 cases of hemorrhagic colitis (bloody inflammation of the colon) a year in the US. The bacteria produce toxins that can damage the lining of the intestine. The colitis caused can be quite severe with painful abdominal cramps, diarrhea and grossly visible blood in the stool, lasting for 6 to 8 days. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) -- Some children infected with E. coli 0157:H7 develop the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Hemolytic"" refers to the breakup of red blood cells. This leads to anemia and a shortage of platelets (thrombocytopenia) which causes abnormal bleeding. ""Uremic"" refers to the acute kidney failure. Central nervous system problems with seizures and coma can also occur. The hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute kidney failure in infants and young children. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) -- Persons who get E. coli 0157:H7, particularly the elderly, can develop a syndrome similar to HUS called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) with anemia due to fragmentation of red blood cells, shortage of platelets (thrombocytopenia) with easy bruising, neurologic abnormalities, impaired kidney function, and fever.

E2F3
E2F transcription factor 3. E2F3 is a gene on chromosome 6p22 that is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. E2F3 may be a key gene in modulating the aggressivity of prostate cancer. E2F3 is present in a high proportion (67%) of prostate cancers. Men with prostate cancer exhibiting detectable E2F3 expression have poorer survival than those without detectable E2F3 expression.

Eagle syndrome
Inflammation of the styloid process, a spike-like projection sticking off the base of the skull. The tissues in the throat rub on this structure during the act of swallowing causing pain. The diagnosis of Eagle syndrome is made by history and an x-ray showing the abnormal styloid process. Anti-inflammatory drugs are the first line of treatment although surgical removal of the styloid process may be needed.

Ear
The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy textbooks. They are the outer ear (the part we see along the sides of our head behind the temples), the middle ear, and the inner ear. But in terms of function, the ear has four parts: those three and the brain. Hearing thus involves all parts of the ear as well as the auditory cortex of the brain. The external ear helps concentrate the vibrations of air on the ear drum and make it vibrate. These vibrations are transmitted by a chain of little bones in the middle ear to the inner ear. There they stimulate the fibers of the auditory nerve to transmit impulses to the brain.

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