Drug Withdrawal Symptoms
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  Drug Withdrawal Symptoms



Drug Withdrawal Symptoms

   Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.

RELATED TERMS
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Psychological
Pertaining to mental life as manifested through language and behavior.

Withdrawal
The act or process of giving up the use of a drug to which one has become addicted or dependent.

Administration
The planning and managing of programs, services, and resources.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Drug Abuse
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Drug Abuse Detection
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drug Abuse Detections
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drug Abuse Screening
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drug Abuse Screenings
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drug Abuse Testing
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drug Abuse Testings
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drug Abuse Treatment Centers
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.

Drug Abuse, Intravenous
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.

Drug Abuse, Parenteral
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.

Drug Abuse, Sports
Illegitimate use of drugs for a desired effect in competitive sports; includes humans and animals.

Drug Abuses, Sports
Illegitimate use of drugs for a desired effect in competitive sports; includes humans and animals.

Drug activity
A measure of the physiological response a drug produces. A less active drug produces less response (and visa versa).

Drug Addiction
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Drug Administration Route
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.

Drug Administration Routes
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.

Drug Administration Schedule
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.

Drug Administration Schedules
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.

Drug Administration, Anal
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.

Drug Administration, Bladder
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.

Drug Administration, Buccal
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.

Drug Administration, Cutaneous
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.

Drug Administration, Dermal
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.

Drug Administration, Inhalation
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.

Drug Administration, Intranasal
The administration of drugs through the nasal passage.

Drug Administration, Intravesical
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.

Drug Administration, Oral
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.

Drug Administration, Rectal
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.

Drug Administration, Respiratory
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.

Drug Administration, Sublingual
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.

Drug Administration, Vaginal
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.

Drug Administrations, Anal
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.

Drug Administrations, Bladder
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.

Drug Administrations, Buccal
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.

Drug Administrations, Cutaneous
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.

Drug Administrations, Dermal
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.

Drug Administrations, Intranasal
The administration of drugs through the nasal passage.

Drug Administrations, Intravesical
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.

Drug Administrations, Oral
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.

Drug Administrations, Rectal
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.

Drug Administrations, Sublingual
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.

Drug Administrations, Vaginal
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.

Drug Aerosol Therapy
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.

Drug Allergies
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.

Drug Allergy
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.

Drug and Narcotic Control
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.

Drug Approval
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.

Drug Approval Process
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.

Drug Approval Processes
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.

Drug Approval, New
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.

Drug Approvals
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.

Drug Approvals, New
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.

Drug Benefit Plan
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.

Drug Benefit Plans
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.

Drug Carrier
Forms to which substances are incorportated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.

Drug Carriers
Forms to which substances are incorportated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.

Drug caution codes
Abbreviations on medications that indicate caution.

Drug Combination, Anticancer
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

Drug Combination, Antineoplastic
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

Drug Combinations
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture. It is differentiated from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION in which two or more drugs are administered separately for a combined effect.

Drug Combinations, Antibiotic
Combinations of antibiotics used against difficult-to-treat infections. Antibiotic combinations have been used mainly to broaden the antibacterial spectrum and prevent development of resistance. In some instances these combinations have shown lower toxicity, but drug antagonism may be one of the problems encountered by their use. They may be given simultaneously or sequentially. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

Drug Combinations, Anticancer
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

Drug Combinations, Antineoplastic
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

Drug Committee
An advisory group composed primarily of staff physicians and the pharmacist which serves as the communication link between the medical staff and the pharmacy department.

Drug Committees
An advisory group composed primarily of staff physicians and the pharmacist which serves as the communication link between the medical staff and the pharmacy department.

Drug Compounding
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)

Drug Container
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and biological products. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.

Drug Containers
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and biological products. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.

Drug Containers and Closures
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and biological products. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.

Drug Control
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.

Drug Controls
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.

Drug Cost
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).

Drug Costs
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).

Drug delivery
The method and route used to provide medication.

Drug Delivery System
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.

Drug Delivery Systems
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.

Drug Delivery Systems, Implantable
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristaltically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.

Drug Dependence
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Drug Design
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.

Drug Designs
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.

Drug Detoxication, Metabolic
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.

Drug Detoxications, Metabolic
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.

Drug Dose-Response Relationship
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Drug Dose-Response Relationships
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Drug Eruption
Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.

Drug Eruptions
Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.

Drug Evaluation
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.

Drug Evaluation Studies
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.

Drug Evaluation Studies, Preclinical
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.

Drug Evaluation Study
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.

Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase 1
Studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.

Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase 2
Studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.

Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase 3
Comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.

Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase 4
Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.

Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase I
Studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.

Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase II
Studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.

Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase III
Comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.

Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase IV
Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.

Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.

Drug Evaluations
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.

Drug Evaluations, Preclinical
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.

Drug Food Interactions
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Drug Formulation
Chemistry that deals with the composition and preparation of substances used in treatment of patients or diagnostic studies. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Drug Formulations
Chemistry that deals with the composition and preparation of substances used in treatment of patients or diagnostic studies. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Drug Habituation
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Drug Hypersensitivities
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.

Drug Hypersensitivity
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.

Drug Implants
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.

Drug Incompatibilities
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Drug Incompatibility
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Drug Induced Abnormalities
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.

Drug Induced Akathisia
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.

Drug Industries
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.

Drug Industry
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.

Drug Information Service
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.

Drug Information Services
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.

Drug Infusion System
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.

Drug Infusion Systems
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.

Drug Instillation
The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from irrigation in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.

Drug Instillations
The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from irrigation in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.

Drug Insurance
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.

Drug Interaction
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.

Drug Interactions
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.

Drug Kinetics
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and drug absorption, biotransformation, distribution, release, transport, uptake, and elimination as a function of dosage, and extent and rate of metabolic processes. It includes toxicokinetics, the pharmacokinetic mechanism of the toxic effects of a substance.

Drug Labeling
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.

Drug Labelling
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.

Drug Law
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.

Drug Laws
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.

Drug Legislation
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.

Drug Metabolic Detoxication
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.

Drug Metabolic Detoxications
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.

Drug Metabolic Detoxification
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.

Drug Metabolic Detoxifications
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.

Drug Modeling
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.

Drug Modelings
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.

Drug Monitoring
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.

Drug Package Insert
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.

Drug Package Inserts
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.

Drug Packaging
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and biological products. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.

Drug Packagings
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and biological products. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.

Drug Pellets
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.

Drug Precursors
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.

Drug Preparation
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)

Drug Preparations
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)

Drug Prescription
Directions written for the preparation and adminstration of a drug.

Drug Prescriptions
Directions written for the preparation and adminstration of a drug.

Drug Product Labeling
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.

Drug Production, Orphan
Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.

Drug Prospecting
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.

Drug Psychoses
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.

Drug Pulse Therapies
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.

Drug Pulse Therapy
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.

Drug Reaction Reporting Systems, Adverse
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.

Drug Recall
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.

Drug Recalls
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.

Drug Receptor
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.

Drug Receptors
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.

Drug Regulation
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.

Drug Regulations
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.

Drug Rehab Central
Drug Rehab Central is a hospital in Los Angles, California (USA).

Drug rehabilitation
Drug rehabilitation is an umbrella term for a variety of processes by which a person addicted to a drug stops using that drug. These processes can vary from cold turkey to the use of substitute drugs which do not have the same action upon the state of consciousness as the original drug to which the person was addicted.

Drug Rehabilitation Center
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.

Drug Rehabilitation Centers
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.

Drug Residue
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.

Drug Residues
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.

Drug resistance
The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to withstand a drug to which they were once sensitive and were once slowed in growth or killed outright.

Drug Resistance
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.

Drug Resistance, Antineoplastic
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.

Drug Resistance, Bacterial
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Drug Resistance, Fungal
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.

Drug Resistance, Microbial
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Drug Resistance, Multiple
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.

Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.

Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.

Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.

Drug Resistance, Viral
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Drug Resistances, Microbial
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Drug Resistances, Viral
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Drug Screen, Anti-Cancer
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Screen, Antitumor
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Screening
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.

Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Screening Tests, Tumor Specific
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Screening Tests, Tumor-Specific
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Screenings
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.

Drug Screens, Anti-Cancer
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Screens, Antitumor
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Sensitivity Assay, Microbial
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).

Drug Sensitivity Tests, Helminth
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.

Drug Sensitivity Tests, Parasitic
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.

Drug Sensitivity Tests, Protozoal
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.

Drug Skin Administrations
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.

Drug Surveillance, Postmarketing
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.

Drug Surveillances, Postmarketing
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.

Drug Targeting
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.

Drug Targetings
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.

Drug Test, Cancer
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Testing, Illicit
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drug Testings, Illicit
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drug Tests, Cancer
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.

Drug Therapies, Combination
Drug therapy with two or more drugs given separately for a combined effect.

Drug Therapies, Computer-Assisted
Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.

Drug Therapies, Pulse
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.

Drug Therapy, Adjuvant
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.

Drug Therapy, Aerosol
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.

Drug Therapy, Combination
Drug therapy with two or more drugs given separately for a combined effect.

Drug Therapy, Computer Assisted
Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.

Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted
Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.

Drug Therapy, Pulse
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.

Drug Tolerance
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.

Drug Tolerances
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.

Drug Toxicities
Manifestations of the adverse effects of drugs administered therapeutically or in the course of diagnostic techniques. It does not include accidental or intentional poisoning for which specific headings are available.

Drug Toxicity
Manifestations of the adverse effects of drugs administered therapeutically or in the course of diagnostic techniques. It does not include accidental or intentional poisoning for which specific headings are available.

Drug treatment
A treatment with one or more drugs to fight a given condition or disease. Also, a treatment against drug addiction.

Drug treatment center
A specific center, clinic or institution where drug addiction patients are treated against their addiction.

Drug Treatment Center
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.

Drug Treatment Centers
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.

Drug Usage
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Drug Use Disorder
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Drug Use Disorders
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Drug Use Review
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

Drug User, IV
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.

Drug Users, IV
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.

Drug Utilization
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.

Drug Utilization Evaluation
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

Drug Utilization Evaluations
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

Drug Utilization Review
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

Drug Utilization Reviews
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

Drug Utilizations
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.

Drug Withdrawal Symptom
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.

Drug, ACE-inhibitor
A drug that inhibits ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) which is important to the formation of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes arteries in the body to constrict and thereby raises the blood pressure. ACE inhibitors lower the blood pressure by inhibiting the formation of angiotensin II. This relaxes the arteries. Relaxing the arteries not only lowers blood pressure, but also improves the pumping efficiency of a failing heart and improves cardiac output in patients with heart failure. ACE inhibitors are therefore used for blood pressure control and congestive heart failure.

Drug, anti-infective
Something capable of acting against infection, by inhibiting the spread of an infectious agent or by killing the infectious agent outright. Anti-infective is a general term that encompasses antibacterials, antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoans and antivirals.

Drug, antibiotic
A drug used to treat bacterial infections.T he original definition of an antibiotic was a substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another microorganism. However, wholly synthetic antibiotics (usually chemically related to natural antibiotics) have since been produced that accomplish comparable tasks.

Drug, antifungal
A drug used to treat fungal infections. Examples of antifungal drugs include miconazole and clotrimazole.

Drug, antihypertensive
As the name clearly implies, a drug aimed at reducing high blood pressure (hypertension).

Drug, antimicrobial
A drug used to treat a microbial infection. The term "antimicrobial" is a general one that refers to a group of drugs that includes antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antivirals.

Drug, antiprotozoal
Something that destroys protozoa or inhibits their growth and ability to reproduce. A few of the protozoa of medical importance include Plasmodium (the cause of malaria); Entamoeba histolytica (the cause of amebiasis, amebic dysentery) and Trichomonas vaginalis (a cause of vaginal infection); and Pneumocystis carinii (a common cause of pneumonia [PCP] in immunodeficient persons). Some antiprotozoal drugs include the antimalarials Aralen (chloroquine), Daraprim (pyrimethamine), Lariam (mefloquine) and Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine); Flagyl (metronidazole) which is active against Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis; and Mepron (atovaquone) for Pneumocystis carinii.

Drug, antithyroid
A drug directed against the thyroid gland. The antithyroid drugs include carbimazole, methimazole, and propylthiouracil (PTU). These drugs are used to treat hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland) in order to reduce the excessive thyroid activity before surgery and to treat and maintain patients not having surgery. Carbimazole, its active metabolite methimazole, and propylthiouracil all act by inhibiting the enzyme thyroid peroxidase and in that way they block the synthesis (the production) of thyroid hormone. About 30 to 40% of patients treated with an antithyroid drug remain euthyroid (with normal levels of thyroid hormone) 10 years after the discontinuation of antithyroid drug therapy, which means that the Graves disease (the most common cause of hyperthyroidism) is in remission. A common problem with antithyroid drugs is undershooting or overshooting causing persistent hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. A rare complication of antithyroid therapy is agranulocytosis (decrease in white blood cells) which calls for immediate discontinuation of the drug.

Drug, antiviral
An agent that kills viruses or suppresses their replication and, hence, inhibits their capability to multiply and reproduce.

Drug, Orphan
Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.

Drug, over-the-counter (OTC)
A drug for which a prescription is not needed.

Drug, prescription
A drug requiring a prescription, as opposed to an over-the-counter drug, which can be purchased without one.

Drug, sulfa
One of the sulfonamides, the sulfa-related antibiotics which are used to treat bacterial and some fungal infections.

Drug, tocolytic
A medication that can inhibit labor, slow down or halt the contractions of the uterus. Tocolytic agents are widely used today to treat premature labor and permit pregnancy to proceed and so permit the fetus to gain in size and maturity before being born.

Drug-Food Interaction
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Drug-Food Interactions
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Drug-Induced Abnormalities
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.

Drug-Induced Abnormality
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.

Drug-Induced Abortion
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)

Drug-Induced Abortions
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)

Drug-Induced Acathisia
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.

Drug-Induced Acathisias
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.

Drug-Induced Akathisia
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.

Drug-Induced Dyskinesia
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)

Drug-Induced Dyskinesias
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)

Drug-Induced Hepatitides
Acute hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins such as Amanita phaloides toxin, carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, and a variety of drugs. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Drug-Induced Hepatitis
Acute hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins such as Amanita phaloides toxin, carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, and a variety of drugs. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more antitubercular agents. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculosis as an opportunistic disease in HIV infection.

Drug-Use Review
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

Drug-Use Reviews
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

Drugs
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.

Drugs during pregnancy, dangerous
A teratogen is an agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus. Teratogens halt the pregnancy or produce a congenital malformation (a birth defect). Classes of teratogens include radiation, maternal infections, chemicals, and drugs.

Drugs of Abuse
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.

Drugs, Adrenergic
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.

Drugs, Adrenergic Neuron
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.

Drugs, Adrenolytic
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.

Drugs, AIDS
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.

Drugs, Analeptic
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.

Drugs, Analgesic
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of consciousness or without producing anesthesia.

Drugs, Anesthetic
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general anesthesia, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.

Drugs, Anitisyphilitic
Agents used to treat infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA. This includes SYPHILIS & YAWS.

Drugs, Anorexic
Agents that are used to decrease appetite.

Drugs, Anorexigenic
Agents that are used to decrease appetite.

Drugs, Anti-AIDS
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.

Drugs, Anti-Allergy
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)

Drugs, anti-angiogenesis
These drugs, which include angiostatin and Endostatin, halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Angiostatin is a piece of a larger and very common protein, plasminogen, that the body uses in blood clotting. Endostatin is a piece of a different protein, collagen 18, that is in all blood vessels. Both angiostatin and Endostatin are normally secreted by tumors. It is hoped that they will provide the basis for a new class of agents to treat cancer.

Drugs, Anti-Angiogenic
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.

Drugs, Anti-Anxiety
Agents that alleviate anxiety, tension, and neurotic symptoms, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. Some are also effective as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, or anesthesia adjuvants. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.

Drugs, Anti-Arrhythmia
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.

Drugs, Anti-Asthmatic
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.

Drugs, Anti-Carcinogenic
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved. They differ from antineoplastic agents in that they prevent neoplasms from forming. The anticarcinogenic substances can be divided into three categories. The first consists of compounds that prevent the formation of carcinogens from precursor substances. The second group consists of ""blocking agents"" which inhibit carcinogenesis by preventing carcinogenic agents from reaching or reacting with critical target sites in the tissues. The third group is the ""suppressor agents"" which act by suppression of expression of neoplasia in cells previously exposed to carcinogens that would otherwise cause neoplasms.

Drugs, Anti-HIV
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.

Drugs, Anti-Hypertensive
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic hypertension regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE), ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.

Drugs, Anti-Obesity
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.

Drugs, Anti-Rheumatic
Drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Drugs, Anti-Ulcer
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate ulcers or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.

Drugs, Antiallergic
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)

Drugs, Antiarrhythmia
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.

Drugs, Antiarrhythmic
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.

Drugs, Antiasthmatic
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.

Drugs, Anticarcinogenic
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved. They differ from antineoplastic agents in that they prevent neoplasms from forming. The anticarcinogenic substances can be divided into three categories. The first consists of compounds that prevent the formation of carcinogens from precursor substances. The second group consists of ""blocking agents"" which inhibit carcinogenesis by preventing carcinogenic agents from reaching or reacting with critical target sites in the tissues. The third group is the ""suppressor agents"" which act by suppression of expression of neoplasia in cells previously exposed to carcinogens that would otherwise cause neoplasms.

Drugs, Anticholesteremic
Substances used to lower plasma cholesterol levels.

Drugs, Anticholinesterase
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.

Drugs, Anticoagulant
Agents that prevent blood clotting. Naturally occurring agents in the blood are included only when they are used as drugs.

Drugs, Anticonvulsant
Drugs used to prevent seizures or reduce their severity.

Drugs, Anticonvulsive
Drugs used to prevent seizures or reduce their severity.

Drugs, Antidepressant
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.

Drugs, Antidiabetic
Agents which lower the blood glucose level.

Drugs, Antidiarrheal
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.

Drugs, Antiemetic
Drugs used to prevent nausea or vomiting. Antiemetics act by a wide range of mechanisms. Some act on the medullary contol centers (the vomiting center and the chemoreceptive trigger zone) while others affect the peripheral receptors.

Drugs, Antiepileptic
Drugs used to prevent seizures or reduce their severity.

Drugs, Antihypertensive
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic hypertension regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE), ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.

Drugs, Antilipemic
Substances used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIA.

Drugs, Antimalarial
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)

Drugs, Antimanic
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.

Drugs, Antimitotic
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

Drugs, Antinematodal
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.

Drugs, Antineoplastic
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

Drugs, Antineoplastic Alkylating
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)

Drugs, Antineoplastic Hormonal
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)

Drugs, Antiobesity
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.

Drugs, Antiparasitic
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.

Drugs, Antiperistaltic
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.

Drugs, Antiplatelet
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.

Drugs, Antiplatyhelmintic
Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.

Drugs, Antipruritic
Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).

Drugs, Antipsychotic
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in schizophrenia, senile dementia, transient psychosis following surgery or myocardial infarction, etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.

Drugs, Antirheumatic
Drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Drugs, Antispasmodic
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.

Drugs, Antithrombic
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to fibrinolysin (PLASMIN).

Drugs, Antithyroid
Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.

Drugs, Antitreponemal
Agents used to treat infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA. This includes SYPHILIS & YAWS.

Drugs, Antitrichomonal
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.

Drugs, Antitubercular
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: ""first-line"" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and ""second-line"" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.

Drugs, Antitussive
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.

Drugs, Antiviral
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of virus diseases. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.

Drugs, Appetite-Depressing
Agents that are used to decrease appetite.

Drugs, Appetite-Stimulating
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.

Drugs, Appetite-Suppressant
Agents that are used to decrease appetite.

Drugs, Autonomic
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.

Drugs, Benzodiazepine Anti-Anxiety
Substances with a benzodiazepine ring structure widely used to treat anxiety and neuroses. Drugs in this class also generally have sedative or weak hypnotic properties and may be effective as muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, and anesthesia adjuvants.

Drugs, Cardiovascular
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.

Drugs, Cholinergic
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.

Drugs, Curariform
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.

Drugs, Customized
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.

Drugs, Cytostatic
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

Drugs, Designer
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.

Drugs, Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic
Drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Drugs, Disease-Modifying Second-Line
Drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Drugs, Dopamine
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.

Drugs, Dopaminergic
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.

Drugs, Emetic
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.

Drugs, Essential
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs. (World Health Organization Action Programme on Essential Drugs, 1994, p3)

Drugs, Female Infertility
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.

Drugs, Fertility
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.

Drugs, Fibrinolytic
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to fibrinolysin (PLASMIN).

Drugs, Gastric
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.

Drugs, Gastrointestinal
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.

Drugs, Generic
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.

Drugs, Hallucinogenic
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.

Drugs, Histamine
Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.

Drugs, Histaminergic
Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.

Drugs, Hypoglycemic
Agents which lower the blood glucose level.

Drugs, Illicit
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.

Drugs, Infertility
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.

Drugs, Investigational
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.

Drugs, Investigational New
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.

Drugs, Lipotropic
Endogenous factors or drugs that act on fat metabolism by hastening the removal of or decreasing the deposit of fat in the liver. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p951)

Drugs, Neuroleptic
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in schizophrenia, senile dementia, transient psychosis following surgery or myocardial infarction, etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.

Drugs, Neuroprotective
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.

Drugs, Non Prescription
Drugs that can be sold legally without a prescription.

Drugs, Non-Prescription
Drugs that can be sold legally without a prescription.

Drugs, Nonprescription
Drugs that can be sold legally without a prescription.

Drugs, Nonproprietary
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.

Drugs, Nootropic
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.

Drugs, Orphan
Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.

Drugs, OTC
Drugs that can be sold legally without a prescription.

Drugs, Over-the-Counter
Drugs that can be sold legally without a prescription.

Drugs, Oxytocic
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce labor at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)

Drugs, Parasympatholytic
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.

Drugs, Parasympathomimetic
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.

Drugs, Protective
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.

Drugs, Psychoactive
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).

Drugs, Psychotropic
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).

Drugs, Radiation-Protective
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.

Drugs, Radiation-Sensitizing
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.

Drugs, Radioprotective
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.

Drugs, Radiosensitizing
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.

Drugs, Recreational
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.

Drugs, Sclerosing
Chemical agents injected into veins to cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels. They are used in the treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

Drugs, Second-Generation Antidepressive
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.

Drugs, Sensory System
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)

Drugs, Serotonergic
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.

Drugs, Serotonin
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.

Drugs, Spermatocidal
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.

Drugs, statin
A class of drugs that lower cholesterol.

Drugs, Street
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.

Drugs, Sympatholytic
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.

Drugs, Sympathomimetic
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.

Drugs, teratogenic
A teratogen is an agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus. Teratogens halt the pregnancy or produce a congenital malformation (a birth defect). Classes of teratogens include radiation, maternal infections, chemicals, and drugs.

Drugs, Thrombolytic
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to fibrinolysin (PLASMIN).

Drugs, Tranquilizing
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.

Drugs, Tranquillizing
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.

Drugs, Tricyclic Antidepressant
Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.

Drugs, Trypanocidal
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.

Drugs, Vasoconstrictor
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.

Drugs, Vasodilator
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.

Drugs, Weight-Loss
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.



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Drug Toxicity
Manifestations of the adverse effects of drugs administered therapeutically or in the course of diagnostic techniques. It does not include accidental or intentional poisoning for which specific headings are available.

Drug Toxicities
Manifestations of the adverse effects of drugs administered therapeutically or in the course of diagnostic techniques. It does not include accidental or intentional poisoning for which specific headings are available.

Drug Tolerances
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.

Drug Tolerance
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.

Drug Withdrawal Symptom
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.

Drug Withdrawal Symptoms

Drug Utilization Reviews
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.

Drug-Food Interactions
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Drug-Food Interaction
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Drug, Orphan
Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.

Drug Utilizations
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.

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