Disorder, Dysthymic
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  Disorder, Dysthymic



Disorder, Dysthymic

   Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)

RELATED TERMS
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Mood
A pervasive and sustained emotion that colors the perception of the world. Common examples of mood include depression, elation, anger, and anxiety. In contrast to affect, which refers to more fluctuating changes in emotional "weather," mood refers to a more pervasive and sustained emotional "climate." Types of mood include: dysphoric, elevated, euthymic, expansive, irritable.

Diagnosis
The determination of the presence of a specific disease or infection, usually accomplished by evaluating clinical symptoms and laboratory tests.

Insomnia
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.

Hypersomnia
Excessive difficulty maintaining an alert awake state during the day, or undesired daytime sleep episodes. sleepiness, as evidenced by prolonged nocturnal sleep, ideas of reference The feeling that casual incidents and external events have a particular and unusual meaning that is specific to the person. This is to be distinguished from a delusion of reference, in which there is a belief that is held with delusional conviction

Fatigue
Physical or mental exhaustion. Weariness.

Concentration
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.

Feelings
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Disobrom
Disobrom is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dexbrompheniramine maleate; pseudoephedrine sulfate.

Disodium 1 Hydroxyethylene Diphosphonate
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.

Disodium 1-Hydroxyethylene Diphosphonate
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.

Disodium alpha Sulfobenzylpenicillin
Semisynthetic penicillin-type antibiotic.

Disodium alpha-Sulfobenzylpenicillin
Semisynthetic penicillin-type antibiotic.

Disodium Calcitetracemate
A chelating agent (CHELATING AGENTS) that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.

Disodium Cromoglycate
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.

Disodium edetate
Disodium edetate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): edetate disodium.

Disodium EDTA
A chelating agent (CHELATING AGENTS) that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.

Disodium Ethylene Dinitrilotetraacetate
A chelating agent (CHELATING AGENTS) that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.

Disodium Etidronate
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.

Disodium Fluorescein
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium, such as the aqueous humor, and is used therapeutically as a diagnostic aid in corneal injuries and corneal trauma. It has been approved by FDA for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 12th ed; American Medical Association Drug Evaluations; 1995, p2275)

Disodium Latamoxef
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.

Disodium Moxalactam
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.

Disodium Oxalate
Salts and esters of OXALIC ACID.

Disodium Phosphonoacetate
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.

Disodium Salt Aminopterin
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.

Disodium Salt Bilirubin
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.

Disodium Salt Bucladesine
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Disodium Salt Methotrexate
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.

Disodium Salt Nitroprusside
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.

Disodium Salt Phosphocreatine
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)

Disodium Salt Succimer
A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.

Disodium Salt, Amifostine
A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.

Disodium Salt, Carbenoxolone
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.

Disodium Salt, Cefotetan
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.

Disodium Salt, Fluorescein
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium, such as the aqueous humor, and is used therapeutically as a diagnostic aid in corneal injuries and corneal trauma. It has been approved by FDA for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 12th ed; American Medical Association Drug Evaluations; 1995, p2275)

Disodium Salt, Foscarnet
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.

Disodium Salt, SITS
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.

Disodium, Carbenicillin
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.

Disodium, Cefotetan
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.

Disodium, Moxalactam
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.

Disodium, Sulfobromophthalein
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in heptatic function determination.

Disofenin, Tc-99m
A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)

Disomer
Disomer is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dexbrompheniramine maleate.

Disomies, Uniparental
The presence in a cell of two paired chromosomes from the same parent, with no chromosome of that pair from the other parent. This chromosome composition stems from non-disjunction (NONDISJUNCTION, GENETIC) events during MEIOSIS. The disomy may be composed of both homologous chromosomes from one parent (heterodisomy) or a duplicate of one chromosome (isodisomy).

Disomy, Uniparental
The presence in a cell of two paired chromosomes from the same parent, with no chromosome of that pair from the other parent. This chromosome composition stems from non-disjunction (NONDISJUNCTION, GENETIC) events during MEIOSIS. The disomy may be composed of both homologous chromosomes from one parent (heterodisomy) or a duplicate of one chromosome (isodisomy).

Disophrol
Disophrol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dexbrompheniramine maleate; pseudoephedrine sulfate.

Disoprofol
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206)

Disopyramide
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide Monohydrochloride
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide phosphate
Disopyramide phosphate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): disopyramide phosphate.

Disopyramide Phosphate
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide Phosphate (1:1)
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide Phosphate (1:1), (+-)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide Phosphate (1:1), (R)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide Phosphate (1:1), (S)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide, (+-)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide, (R)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide, (S)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide, D-Tartrate (1:1), (S)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide, L-Tartrate (1:1), (R)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide, L-Tartrate (1:1), (S)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide, L-Tartrate (1:2), (+-)-Isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disopyramide, L-Tartrate, (S)-isomer
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.

Disorat
A beta-adrenergic antagonist effective for both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It is used as an antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antiglaucoma agent.

Disorder Agents, Movement
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.

Disorder, Acoustic Perceptual
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Disorder, Adjustment
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.

Disorder, Affective
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

Disorder, Alcohol-Related
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.

Disorder, Amphetamine-Related
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.

Disorder, Animal Gait
A departure from the normal gait in animals.

Disorder, Antisocial Personality
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorder, anxiety
A chronic condition characterized by an excessive and persistent sense of apprehension with physical symptoms such as sweating, palpitations, and feelings of stress. Anxiety disorders have biological and environmental causes.

Disorder, Anxiety
Disorders in which anxiety (persistent feelings of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness) is the predominant disturbance.

Disorder, Atrophic Muscular
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).

Disorder, Attention Deficit
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)

Disorder, attention deficit (ADD)
An inability to control behavior due to difficulty in processing neural stimuli.

Disorder, Auditory Comprehension
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Disorder, Auditory Processing
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Disorder, Autistic
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-IV)

Disorder, Binge-Eating
Episodic binge eating. The episodes may be associated with the fear of not being able to stop eating, depressed mood, or self-deprecating thoughts (binge-eating disorder) and may frequently be terminated by self-induced vomiting (bulimia nervosa).

Disorder, Bipolar
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.

Disorder, Blood Coagulation
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors sych as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.

Disorder, Blood Platelet
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.

Disorder, Borderline Personality
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)

Disorder, Calcium Metabolism
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.

Disorder, Cannabis-Related
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.

Disorder, central auditory processing
A condition in which there is an inability to differentiate, recognize or understand sounds while both the hearing and intelligence are normal.

Disorder, cephalic
A congenital condition that stems from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. Cephalic is a term that means "head" or "head end of the body." Congenital means the disorder is present at, and usually before, birth.

Disorder, Cerebellar
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.

Disorder, Child Mental
Those psychiatric disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. These disorders can also be first diagnosed during other life stages.

Disorder, Child Nutrition
Malnutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years, which is due to insufficient intake of food, dietary nutrients, or a pathophysiologic condition which prevents the absorption and utilization of food. Growth and development are markedly affected.

Disorder, Chromosomal
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)

Disorder, Chromosome
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)

Disorder, Chromosome Abnormality
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)

Disorder, Ciliary Motility
Disorders characterized by abnormal ciliary movement in the nose, paranasal sinuses, respiratory tract, and spermatozoa. Electron microscopy of the CILIA shows that dynein arms are missing. The disorders manifest as KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic sinusitis, and/or chronic otitis.

Disorder, Civil
Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.

Disorder, Coagulation Protein
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.

Disorder, Coagulation Proteins
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.

Disorder, Cocaine-Related
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.

Disorder, Cognition
Disturbances in the mental process related to thinking, reasoning, and judgment.

Disorder, Combat
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.

Disorder, Complex Partial Seizures
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)

Disorder, Congenital
Diseases existing at birth and often before birth, or that develop during the first month of life (INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed ABNORMALITIES.

Disorder, Craniomandibular
Diseases or disorders of the muscles of the head and neck, with special reference to the masticatory muscles. The most notable examples are TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS and TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.

Disorder, Cumulative Trauma
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.

Disorder, Cyclothymic
An affective disorder characterized by periods of depression and hypomania. These may be separated by periods of normal mood.

Disorder, Delusional
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.

Disorder, Dependent Personality
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorder, Depersonalization
State in which an individual perceives or experiences a sensation of unreality concerning the self or the environment; it is seen in disorders such as schizophrenia, affection disorders, organic mental disorders, and personality disorders. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

Disorder, Depressive
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Disorder, Dissociative
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.

Disorder, Dissociative Identity
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.

Disorder, Drug Use
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Disorder, Eczematous
Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.

Disorder, Elimination
Excretory-related psychiatric disorders usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood.

Disorder, Esophageal Motility
Disorders affecting the motor function of the upper or lower esophageal sphincters, the esophageal body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in the impeding of the passage of food, regurgitation of food, or reflux of gastric acid into the esophagus.

Disorder, Facial Nerve
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Disorder, Gonadal
Disease of the ovaries and testes of any etiology.

Disorder, Growth
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.

Disorder, Heat Stress
A group of conditions due to overexposure to or overexertion in excess environmental temperature. It includes heat cramps, which are non-emergent and treated by salt replacement; HEAT EXHAUSTION, which is more serious, treated with fluid and salt replacement; and HEAT STROKE, a condition most commonly affecting extremes of age, especially the elderly, accompanied by convulsions, delusions, or coma and treated with cooling the body and replacement of fluids and salts. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Disorder, Hemorrhagic
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).

Disorder, Histrionic Personality
A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.

Disorder, Hypophyseal
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disorder, Hypothalamic-Adenohypophyseal
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Disorder, Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Disorder, Immunoproliferative
Disorders characterized by abnormal proliferation of primary cells of the immune system or by excessive production of immunoglobulins.

Disorder, Infant Nutrition
Malnutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months, which is due to insufficient intake of food, dietary nutrients, or a pathophysiologic condition which prevents the absorption and utilization of food. Growth and development are markedly affected.

Disorder, Lactation
Disturbances of milk secretion in either sex, not necessarily related to pregnancy.

Disorder, Late-Onset
The age or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.

Disorder, Leukocyte
Disordered formation of various types of leukocytes or an abnormal accumulation or deficiency of these cells.

Disorder, Lymphoproliferative
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.

Disorder, Lysosomal Enzyme
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.

Disorder, Major Depressive
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.

Disorder, Malignant Histiocytic
Distinctive neoplastic disorders of histiocytes. Included are acute monocytic leukemias, malignant histiocytosis (HISTIOCYTOSIS, MALIGNANT), and true histiocytic lymphomas.

Disorder, Manic
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.

Disorder, Menstruation
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.

Disorder, Mental
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.

Disorder, Mitochondrial
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.

Disorder, Mood
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

Disorder, Multiple Identity
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.

Disorder, Multiple Personality
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.

Disorder, Myeloproliferative
Disorders in which one or more stimuli cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential.

Disorder, Myoclonic Seizure
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).

Disorder, Myotonic
Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition. These disorders may be associated with abnormal muscle SODIUM CHANNEL and CHLORIDE CHANNELS. MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY and MYOTONIA CONGENITA represent two relatively common forms of this disorder. Proximal myotonic myopathy often presents with myotonia and muscle pain in early adulthood and later in life thigh muscle weakness and cataracts develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1392)

Disorder, Necrobiotic
A group of disorders characterized by swelling, basophilia, and distortion of collagen bundles in the dermis.

Disorder, Negativistic Personality
A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disorder, Nervous System
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

Disorder, Neurologic
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

Disorder, Neurological
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

Disorder, Neurotic
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.

Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.

Disorder, Opioid-Related
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.

Disorder, Panic
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

Disorder, Papulosquamous
A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.

Disorder, Paranoid
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.

Disorder, Paranoid Personality
A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.

Disorder, Passive-Aggressive Personality
A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disorder, Pervasive Development
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.

Disorder, Phobic
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.

Disorder, Phosphorus Metabolism
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.

Disorder, Photosensitivity
Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.

Disorder, Pituitary
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disorder, Pneumogastric Nerve
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.

Disorder, Post-Traumatic Seizure
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)

Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world.

Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world.

Disorder, Prion-Induced
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA, ataxia, and a fatal outcome. Diseases in this category include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER-SCHEINKER SYNDROME; KURU; SCRAPIE; fatal familial insomnia; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (see ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM); transmissible mink encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)

Disorder, Psychoacoustical
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Disorder, Psychosexual
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorder, Psychotic
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorder, Psychotic Affective
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.

Disorder, Puerperal
Disorders or diseases associated with the six-to-eight-week period immediately following labor and delivery.

Disorder, Reactive
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.

Disorder, Reactive Attachment
Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorder, Refractive
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.

Disorder, Repetitive Motion
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.

Disorder, Respiration
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.

Disorder, Rumination
Mental disorders related to feeding and eating that are usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.

Disorder, Schizoaffective
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorder, Schizoid Personality
A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.

Disorder, Schizophrenic
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, hallucinations, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.

Disorder, Schizophreniform
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorder, Schizotypal Personality
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.

Disorder, Seasonal Affective
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.

Disorder, seasonal affective (SAD)
Depression that tends to occur (and recur) as the days grow shorter in the fall and winter. It is believed that affected persons react adversely to the decreasing amounts of light and the colder temperatures as the fall and winter progress.

Disorder, Seasonal Mood
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.

Disorder, Sex
Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance.

Disorder, Sex Differentiation
Disorders in the differentiation process of gonadal tissues and organs during embryogenesis.

Disorder, Shared Paranoid
A condition in which two closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.

Disorder, Shared Psychotic
A condition in which two closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.

Disorder, social anxiety
Excessive fear of embarrassment in social situations that is extremely intrusive and can have debilitating effects on personal and professional relationships. Also called social phobia. Phobias are persistent, irrational fears of certain objects or situations. They recognize that their fear may be excessive or unreasonable, but are unable to overcome it. The symptoms and signs of social phobia include blushing, sweating, trembling, rapid heartbeat, muscle tension, nausea or other stomach discomfort, lightheadedness, and other symptoms of anxiety.

Disorder, specific developmental
A disorder that selectively affects one area of development, sparing essentially all other areas of development. Specific developmental disorders are as opposed to pervasive developmental disorders (which affect development across the board), dyspraxias that affect multiple systems, cerebral palsy, and metabolic disorders.

Disorder, Substance Use
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Disorder, Teeth Grinding
A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.

Disorder, Tonic-Clonic Convulsion
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)

Disorder, Tonic-Clonic Seizure
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)

Disorder, Urination
Disorders in the frequency of urination, the volume of urine produced or eliminated, or the ability to retain or void urine in normal fashion.

Disorder, Vascular Hemostatic
Alterations in the mechanical integrity or structure of the blood vessels leading to bleeding disorders.

Disorder, X-Linked Lymphoproliferative
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.

Disordered thinking
A failure to be able to "think straight." Thoughts may come and go rapidly. The person may not be able to concentrate on one thought for very long and may be easily distracted, unable to focus attention. The person may be unable to connect thoughts into logical sequences, with thoughts becoming disorganized and fragmented. This lack of logical continuity of thought, termed a "thought disorder," can make conversation very difficult and may contribute to social isolation. If people cannot make sense of what an individual is saying, they are likely to become uncomfortable and tend to leave that person alone. Disorder thinking is a characteristic feature of schizophrenia.

Disorders of Environmental Origin
Disorders representing collectively the results of assault by external forces, rather than by organic or physiologic dysfunction or by pathogens.

Disorders of Excessive Somnolence
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.

Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.

Disorders Usually Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood or Adolescence
Those psychiatric disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. These disorders can also be first diagnosed during other life stages.

Disorders, Acoustic Perceptual
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Disorders, Adjustment
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.

Disorders, Affective
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

Disorders, Alcohol-Related
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.

Disorders, Amphetamine-Related
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.

Disorders, Animal Gait
A departure from the normal gait in animals.

Disorders, Antisocial Personality
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Anxiety
Disorders in which anxiety (persistent feelings of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness) is the predominant disturbance.

Disorders, Atrophic Muscular
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).

Disorders, Attention Deficit
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)

Disorders, Auditory Comprehension
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Disorders, Auditory Processing
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Disorders, Autistic
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-IV)

Disorders, Behavior
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.

Disorders, Binge-Eating
Episodic binge eating. The episodes may be associated with the fear of not being able to stop eating, depressed mood, or self-deprecating thoughts (binge-eating disorder) and may frequently be terminated by self-induced vomiting (bulimia nervosa).

Disorders, Blood Coagulation
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors sych as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.

Disorders, Blood Platelet
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.

Disorders, Borderline Personality
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)

Disorders, Calcium Metabolism
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.

Disorders, Carotid Artery
Diseases of the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and trauma are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.

Disorders, Child Behavior
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.

Disorders, Child Mental
Those psychiatric disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. These disorders can also be first diagnosed during other life stages.

Disorders, Child Nutrition
Malnutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years, which is due to insufficient intake of food, dietary nutrients, or a pathophysiologic condition which prevents the absorption and utilization of food. Growth and development are markedly affected.

Disorders, Chromosomal
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)

Disorders, Chromosome
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)

Disorders, Chronic Fatigue
A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)

Disorders, Ciliary Motility
Disorders characterized by abnormal ciliary movement in the nose, paranasal sinuses, respiratory tract, and spermatozoa. Electron microscopy of the CILIA shows that dynein arms are missing. The disorders manifest as KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic sinusitis, and/or chronic otitis.

Disorders, Civil
Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.

Disorders, Coagulation Protein
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.

Disorders, Coagulation Proteins
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.

Disorders, Cocaine-Related
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.

Disorders, Cognition
Disturbances in the mental process related to thinking, reasoning, and judgment.

Disorders, Combat
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.

Disorders, Congenital
Diseases existing at birth and often before birth, or that develop during the first month of life (INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed ABNORMALITIES.

Disorders, Craniomandibular
Diseases or disorders of the muscles of the head and neck, with special reference to the masticatory muscles. The most notable examples are TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS and TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.

Disorders, Cumulative Trauma
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.

Disorders, Cyclothymic
An affective disorder characterized by periods of depression and hypomania. These may be separated by periods of normal mood.

Disorders, Delusional
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.

Disorders, Depersonalization
State in which an individual perceives or experiences a sensation of unreality concerning the self or the environment; it is seen in disorders such as schizophrenia, affection disorders, organic mental disorders, and personality disorders. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

Disorders, Depressive
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Disorders, Dissociative
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.

Disorders, Eczematous
Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.

Disorders, Elimination
Excretory-related psychiatric disorders usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood.

Disorders, Esophageal Motility
Disorders affecting the motor function of the upper or lower esophageal sphincters, the esophageal body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in the impeding of the passage of food, regurgitation of food, or reflux of gastric acid into the esophagus.

Disorders, Facial Nerve
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Disorders, Factitious
Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.

Disorders, Focal Seizure
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

Disorders, Gonadal
Disease of the ovaries and testes of any etiology.

Disorders, Heat Stress
A group of conditions due to overexposure to or overexertion in excess environmental temperature. It includes heat cramps, which are non-emergent and treated by salt replacement; HEAT EXHAUSTION, which is more serious, treated with fluid and salt replacement; and HEAT STROKE, a condition most commonly affecting extremes of age, especially the elderly, accompanied by convulsions, delusions, or coma and treated with cooling the body and replacement of fluids and salts. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Disorders, Hemorrhagic
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).

Disorders, Histrionic Personality
A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.

Disorders, Hypophyseal
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disorders, Hypothalamic-Adenohypophyseal
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Disorders, Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Disorders, Immunoproliferative
Disorders characterized by abnormal proliferation of primary cells of the immune system or by excessive production of immunoglobulins.

Disorders, Impulse Control
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.

Disorders, Infant Nutrition
Malnutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months, which is due to insufficient intake of food, dietary nutrients, or a pathophysiologic condition which prevents the absorption and utilization of food. Growth and development are markedly affected.

Disorders, Intermittent Explosive
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.

Disorders, Lactation
Disturbances of milk secretion in either sex, not necessarily related to pregnancy.

Disorders, Late-Onset
The age or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.

Disorders, Leukocyte
Disordered formation of various types of leukocytes or an abnormal accumulation or deficiency of these cells.

Disorders, lymphoproliferative
Malignant diseases of the lymphoid cells and cells from the reticuloendothelial system (which take up and sequester inert particles). The lymphoproliferative disorders are in contrast to the myeloproliferative disorders which are malignancies of certain bone marrow cells including those that give rise to the red blood cells, the granulocytes (types of white blood cells), and the platelets (crucial to blood clotting).

Disorders, Lymphoproliferative
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.

Disorders, Lysosomal Enzyme
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.

Disorders, Major Depressive
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.

Disorders, Malignant Histiocytic
Distinctive neoplastic disorders of histiocytes. Included are acute monocytic leukemias, malignant histiocytosis (HISTIOCYTOSIS, MALIGNANT), and true histiocytic lymphomas.

Disorders, Menstruation
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.

Disorders, Mental
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.

Disorders, Mitochondrial
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.

Disorders, Mood
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

Disorders, myeloproliferative
Malignant diseases of certain bone marrow cells including those that give rise to the red blood cells, the granulocytes (types of white blood cells), and the platelets (crucial to blood clotting). The myeloproliferative disorders include myelophthisic anemia, erythroblastic leukemia, leukemoid reaction, myelofibrosis, myeloid metaplasia, polycythemia vera, and thrombocytosis. The myeloproliferative disorders are in contrast to the lymphoproliferative disorders which are malignancies of lymphoid cells and cells of the reticuloendothelial system (such as macrophages) which can take up inert particles and sequester them.

Disorders, Myeloproliferative
Disorders in which one or more stimuli cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential.

Disorders, Myoclonic Seizure
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).

Disorders, Myotonic
Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition. These disorders may be associated with abnormal muscle SODIUM CHANNEL and CHLORIDE CHANNELS. MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY and MYOTONIA CONGENITA represent two relatively common forms of this disorder. Proximal myotonic myopathy often presents with myotonia and muscle pain in early adulthood and later in life thigh muscle weakness and cataracts develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1392)

Disorders, Necrobiotic
A group of disorders characterized by swelling, basophilia, and distortion of collagen bundles in the dermis.

Disorders, Negativistic Personality
A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disorders, Nervous System
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

Disorders, Neurologic
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

Disorders, Neurological
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

Disorders, Neurotic
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.

Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.

Disorders, Organic Mental
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.

Disorders, Orgasmic
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Panic
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

Disorders, Papulosquamous
A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.

Disorders, Paranoid
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.

Disorders, Paranoid Personality
A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.

Disorders, Partial Seizure
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

Disorders, Passive-Aggressive Personality
A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disorders, Pervasive Development
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.

Disorders, Phobic
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.

Disorders, Phosphorus Metabolism
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.

Disorders, Photosensitivity
Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.

Disorders, Pituitary
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disorders, Pneumogastric Nerve
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.

Disorders, Post-Traumatic Seizure
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)

Disorders, Post-Traumatic Stress
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world.

Disorders, Posttraumatic Stress
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world.

Disorders, Prion-Induced
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA, ataxia, and a fatal outcome. Diseases in this category include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER-SCHEINKER SYNDROME; KURU; SCRAPIE; fatal familial insomnia; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (see ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM); transmissible mink encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)

Disorders, Psychoacoustical
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.

Disorders, Psychosexual
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Psychotic
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Psychotic Affective
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.

Disorders, Puerperal
Disorders or diseases associated with the six-to-eight-week period immediately following labor and delivery.

Disorders, Reactive
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.

Disorders, Reactive Attachment
Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Refractive
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.

Disorders, Repetitive Motion
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.

Disorders, Respiration
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.

Disorders, Schizoaffective
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Schizoid Personality
A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.

Disorders, Schizophrenic
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, hallucinations, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.

Disorders, Schizophreniform
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Schizotypal Personality
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.

Disorders, Seasonal Affective
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.

Disorders, Seasonal Mood
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.

Disorders, Sex
Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance.

Disorders, Sex Chromosome
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS) in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).

Disorders, Sex Chromosome Abnormality
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS) in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).

Disorders, Sex Differentiation
Disorders in the differentiation process of gonadal tissues and organs during embryogenesis.

Disorders, Sexual Arousal
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Sexual Aversion
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)

Disorders, Shared Paranoid
A condition in which two closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.

Disorders, Shared Psychotic
A condition in which two closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.

Disorders, Social Behavior
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.

Disorders, Teeth Grinding
A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.

Disorders, Tonic-Clonic Convulsion
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)

Disorders, Tonic-Clonic Seizure
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)

Disorders, Urination
Disorders in the frequency of urination, the volume of urine produced or eliminated, or the ability to retain or void urine in normal fashion.

Disorders, Vascular Hemostatic
Alterations in the mechanical integrity or structure of the blood vessels leading to bleeding disorders.

Disorders, X-Linked Lymphoproliferative
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.

Disorganization, Social
A state of social disorganization and demoralization in society which is largely the result of disharmony between cultural goals and the means for attaining them. This may be reflected in the behavior of the individual in many ways - non-conformity, social withdrawal, deviant behavior, etc.

Disorganizations, Social
A state of social disorganization and demoralization in society which is largely the result of disharmony between cultural goals and the means for attaining them. This may be reflected in the behavior of the individual in many ways - non-conformity, social withdrawal, deviant behavior, etc.

Disorganized Schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disorganized Schizophrenias
A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disorientation
Confusion about the time of day, date, or season (time), where one is (place), or who one is (person).



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Disorder, Gonadal
Disease of the ovaries and testes of any etiology.

Disorder, Facial Nerve
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Disorder, Esophageal Motility
Disorders affecting the motor function of the upper or lower esophageal sphincters, the esophageal body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in the impeding of the passage of food, regurgitation of food, or reflux of gastric acid into the esophagus.

Disorder, Elimination
Excretory-related psychiatric disorders usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood.

Disorder, Eczematous
Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.

Disorder, Dysthymic

Disorder, Drug Use
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.

Disorder, Dissociative Identity
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.

Disorder, Dissociative
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.

Disorder, Depressive
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Disorder, Multiple Personality
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.

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