Damage, DNA
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  Damage, DNA



Damage, DNA

   Drug- or radiation-induced injuries in DNA that introduce deviations from its normal double-helical conformation. These changes include structural distortions which interfere with replication and transcription, as well as point mutations which disrupt base pairs and exert damaging effects on future generations through changes in DNA sequence. If the damage is minor, it can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce apoptosis.

RELATED TERMS
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Transcription
Making an RNA copy from a gene or other DNA sequence. Transcription is the first step in gene expression.

Base
A chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Bases and acids are referred to as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Arrhenius bases are water-soluble and always have a pH greater than 7 in solution.

Future
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.

Generations
Size and composition of the family.

Apoptosis
A form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area. Apoptosis plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining health by eliminating old cells, unnecessary cells, and unhealthy cells. The human body replaces perhaps a million cells a second. Too little or too much apoptosis plays a role in a great many diseases. When programmed cell death does not work right, cells that should be eliminated may hang around and become immortal. For example, in cancer and leukemia. When apoptosis works overly well, it kills too many cells and inflicts grave tissue damage. This is the case in strokes and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer, Huntington and Parkinson diseases. Apoptosis is also called programmed cell death or cell suicide. Strictly speaking, the term apoptosis refers only to the structural changes cells go through, and programmed cell death refers to the complete underlying process, but the terms are often used interchangeably.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Damage, Anoxic Brain
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Damage, Hypoxic Brain
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Damage, Reperfusion
Functional, metabolic, or structural changes, including necrosis, in ischemic tissues thought to result from REPERFUSION to ischemic areas of the tissue. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.

Damages, DNA
Drug- or radiation-induced injuries in DNA that introduce deviations from its normal double-helical conformation. These changes include structural distortions which interfere with replication and transcription, as well as point mutations which disrupt base pairs and exert damaging effects on future generations through changes in DNA sequence. If the damage is minor, it can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce apoptosis.

Damages, Reperfusion
Functional, metabolic, or structural changes, including necrosis, in ischemic tissues thought to result from REPERFUSION to ischemic areas of the tissue. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.

Damai Service Hospital
The Damai Service Hospital is a hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Damai Service Hospital S-B
The Damai Service Hospital S-B is a hospital in Selangor, Malaysia.

Damai Specialist Centre S-B
The Damai Specialist Centre S-B is a hospital in Sabah, Malaysia.

Damalinia
An order of insects comprising the chewing lice or biting lice, many of which are parasitic on wild birds and domestic fowl and on wild and domestic mammals. Suborders include Amblycera and Ischnocera.

Damanhur doctors
All doctors near Damanhur, Egypt. Doctors who can assist a patient in Damanhur.

Damansara Fertility Centre
The Damansara Fertility Centre is a hospital in Selangor, Malaysia.

Damansara Specialist Hospital
The Damansara Specialist Hospital is a hospital in Selangor, Malaysia.

Damascus doctors
All doctors near Damascus, Syria. Doctors who can assist a patient in Damascus.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Damalinia
An order of insects comprising the chewing lice or biting lice, many of which are parasitic on wild birds and domestic fowl and on wild and domestic mammals. Suborders include Amblycera and Ischnocera.

Damages, Reperfusion
Functional, metabolic, or structural changes, including necrosis, in ischemic tissues thought to result from REPERFUSION to ischemic areas of the tissue. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.

Damages, DNA
Drug- or radiation-induced injuries in DNA that introduce deviations from its normal double-helical conformation. These changes include structural distortions which interfere with replication and transcription, as well as point mutations which disrupt base pairs and exert damaging effects on future generations through changes in DNA sequence. If the damage is minor, it can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce apoptosis.

Damage, Hypoxic Brain
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Damage, Reperfusion
Functional, metabolic, or structural changes, including necrosis, in ischemic tissues thought to result from REPERFUSION to ischemic areas of the tissue. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.

Damage, DNA

Damage, Anoxic Brain
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Dam, Rubber
Sheets of latex rubber punched and placed over the teeth during dental procedures to isolate the field of operation from the rest of the oral cavity (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982). Rubber dams are useful in preventing the swallowing of instruments or restorations during dental work.

Dalzic
A beta-adrenergic antagonist that has been used in the emergency treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.

Dalteparin Sodium
A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Dalteparin
A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

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