Cytomegaly
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  Cytomegaly



Cytomegaly

    Marked enlargement of cells.



SIMILAR TERMS
--------------------------------------

Cyto
A combining form denoting a cell.

Cytoadhesin Receptors
A group of INTEGRINS that includes the platelet outer membrane glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX) and the vitronectin receptor (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN). They play a major role in cell adhesion and serve as receptors for fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin.

Cytochalasin D
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.

Cytochalasins
A group of fungal metabolites that affect the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

Cytochemical Effect
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.

Cytochemical Effects
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.

Cytochemistry
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.

Cytochrome
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)

Cytochrome a
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)

Cytochrome a(3)
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome a,a3
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome a3
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome aa3
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome b
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme or a related heme as the prosthetic group. The prosthetic group is not covalently bound to the protein moiety.

Cytochrome b 5
A cytochrome occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum that acts as an intermediate electron carrier in some reactions catalyzed by mixed function oxidases, e.g., fatty acid desaturation. It further activates molecular oxygen for an attack on the substrate. MW 16kDa.

Cytochrome b c2 Oxidoreductase
An 11-subunit enzyme complex that acts as an electron transferring protein in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The enzyme complex catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to ubiquinone and ferrocytochrome c in the presence of ferricytochrome c. It contains cytochromes b-562, b-566, and c1 as well as an iron ferredoxin. EC 1.10.2.2.

Cytochrome b-5
A cytochrome occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum that acts as an intermediate electron carrier in some reactions catalyzed by mixed function oxidases, e.g., fatty acid desaturation. It further activates molecular oxygen for an attack on the substrate. MW 16kDa.

Cytochrome b-c2 Oxidoreductase
An 11-subunit enzyme complex that acts as an electron transferring protein in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The enzyme complex catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to ubiquinone and ferrocytochrome c in the presence of ferricytochrome c. It contains cytochromes b-562, b-566, and c1 as well as an iron ferredoxin. EC 1.10.2.2.

Cytochrome b5
A cytochrome occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum that acts as an intermediate electron carrier in some reactions catalyzed by mixed function oxidases, e.g., fatty acid desaturation. It further activates molecular oxygen for an attack on the substrate. MW 16kDa.

Cytochrome bc1
An 11-subunit enzyme complex that acts as an electron transferring protein in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The enzyme complex catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to ubiquinone and ferrocytochrome c in the presence of ferricytochrome c. It contains cytochromes b-562, b-566, and c1 as well as an iron ferredoxin. EC 1.10.2.2.

Cytochrome bc1 Complex
An 11-subunit enzyme complex that acts as an electron transferring protein in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The enzyme complex catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to ubiquinone and ferrocytochrome c in the presence of ferricytochrome c. It contains cytochromes b-562, b-566, and c1 as well as an iron ferredoxin. EC 1.10.2.2.

Cytochrome c
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)

Cytochrome c 1
The 30-kD membrane-bound c-type protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C in the mitochondrial and bacterial respiratory chain. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)

Cytochrome c 551 Peroxidase
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.

Cytochrome c Oxidase
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome c Oxidase Deficiency
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit IV
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome c Peroxidase
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.

Cytochrome c Reductase
A flavoprotein containing iron. Cytochrome c may act as receptor. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD and reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.3

Cytochrome c-1
The 30-kD membrane-bound c-type protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C in the mitochondrial and bacterial respiratory chain. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)

Cytochrome c-551 Peroxidase
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.

Cytochrome c1
The 30-kD membrane-bound c-type protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C in the mitochondrial and bacterial respiratory chain. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)

Cytochrome Claa3
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome d
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron as a prosthetic group in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)

Cytochrome d 650
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron as a prosthetic group in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)

Cytochrome d650
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron as a prosthetic group in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)

Cytochrome oxidase
Histochemical method. Indicator of functional state of neurons as brain derives energy from oxidase metabolism. Used in the discovery of blobs in the visual cortex.

Cytochrome Oxidase
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome Oxidase Deficiencies
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Cytochrome Oxidase Deficiency
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Cytochrome Oxidase III
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit III
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome P 450
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P 450 21 Hydroxylase
A steroid hydroxylase system found in adrenal cortex microsomes. It catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of corticosteroids and shows a requirement for NADPH and molecular oxygen. Its deficiency is a cause of adrenogenital syndrome. EC 1.14.99.10.

Cytochrome P 450 cam
A monooxygenase heme-thiolate (cytochrome P-450) with camphor bound at the active site. It acts as the terminal monooxygenase in the d-camphor monooxygenase system. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site. Additionally, it is the only cytochrome P-450 enzyme with a known crystal structure. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86(20):7823-7; Proteins 1991;11(3):184-204) EC 1.14.15.1.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP11A1
Multi-enzyme complex required for the conversion of cholesterol to adrenal cortex hormones. It releases methylpentanoate or isocaproaldehyde and pregnenolone. The complex contains cytochrome P-450, a flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and NADPH. EC 1.14.15.6.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP11B1
A steroid hydroxylase system found in adrenal tissues. It catalyzes the 11-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and consists of an NADPH-specific flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and cytochrome P-450. Its deficiency is a cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL). EC 1.14.15.4.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP11B2
A multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP19
An enzyme which converts androgens to estrogens by desaturating ring A of the steroid. This enzyme complex is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells including ovaries, placenta, testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells, adipose, and brain tissues. The enzyme complex has two components, one of which is the CYP19 gene product, the aromatase cytochrome P-450. The other component is NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase which transfers reducing equivalents to P-450(arom). EC 1.14.13.-.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP1A1
A cytochrome P-450 enzyme capable of activating procarcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into mutagenic compounds. Ethoxyresorufin acts as a substrate for CYP1A1 and measurement of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase provides a more direct method of detection for this enzyme. EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP1A2
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP27B1
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. The reaction requires oxygen, magnesium, and NAD(P)H. EC 1.14.13.13.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP2B1
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by phenobarbital in both the liver and small intestine. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, testosterone, and androstenedione. CYP2B1 also mediates the activation of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide to mutagens. EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP2D6
A polymorphic enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of debrisoquine. It also metabolizes several antidepressants and neuroleptics. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the population. (Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31(2): 327-331) EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP2E1
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Cytochrome P 450 CYP7
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3 beta,7 alpha-diol. EC 1.14.13.17.

Cytochrome P 450 Dependent Monooxygenase
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P 450 Dependent O Dealkylase
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.

Cytochrome P 450 IIE1
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Cytochrome P 450 LM4
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P 450 Monooxygenase
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P 450 Oxidase
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.

Cytochrome P 450 Oxygenase
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P 450 Reductase
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.

Cytochrome P 450c11AS
A multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P 450d
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P 450j
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Cytochrome P-450
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P-450 (ALC)
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Cytochrome P-450 21-Hydroxylase
A steroid hydroxylase system found in adrenal cortex microsomes. It catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of corticosteroids and shows a requirement for NADPH and molecular oxygen. Its deficiency is a cause of adrenogenital syndrome. EC 1.14.99.10.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP11A1
Multi-enzyme complex required for the conversion of cholesterol to adrenal cortex hormones. It releases methylpentanoate or isocaproaldehyde and pregnenolone. The complex contains cytochrome P-450, a flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and NADPH. EC 1.14.15.6.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B1
A steroid hydroxylase system found in adrenal tissues. It catalyzes the 11-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and consists of an NADPH-specific flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and cytochrome P-450. Its deficiency is a cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL). EC 1.14.15.4.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2
A multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP19
An enzyme which converts androgens to estrogens by desaturating ring A of the steroid. This enzyme complex is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells including ovaries, placenta, testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells, adipose, and brain tissues. The enzyme complex has two components, one of which is the CYP19 gene product, the aromatase cytochrome P-450. The other component is NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase which transfers reducing equivalents to P-450(arom). EC 1.14.13.-.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
A cytochrome P-450 enzyme capable of activating procarcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into mutagenic compounds. Ethoxyresorufin acts as a substrate for CYP1A1 and measurement of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase provides a more direct method of detection for this enzyme. EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP27B1
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. The reaction requires oxygen, magnesium, and NAD(P)H. EC 1.14.13.13.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by phenobarbital in both the liver and small intestine. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, testosterone, and androstenedione. CYP2B1 also mediates the activation of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide to mutagens. EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
A polymorphic enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of debrisoquine. It also metabolizes several antidepressants and neuroleptics. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the population. (Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31(2): 327-331) EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP7
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3 beta,7 alpha-diol. EC 1.14.13.17.

Cytochrome P-450 IIE1
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Cytochrome P-450 LM(4)
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P-450 LM4
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P-450 Monooxygenase
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P-450 Oxidase
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.

Cytochrome P-450 Oxygenase
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P-450 Reductase
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.

Cytochrome P-450(11 beta)
A steroid hydroxylase system found in adrenal tissues. It catalyzes the 11-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and consists of an NADPH-specific flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and cytochrome P-450. Its deficiency is a cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL). EC 1.14.15.4.

Cytochrome P-450(17 alpha)
A steroid hydroxylase system found in the microsomal membrane of the steroid-hormone producing tissues. It catalyzes the 17-hydroxylation of steroids, such as progesterone or pregnenolone in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. This is an important step in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. EC 1.14.99.9.

Cytochrome P-450(arom)
An enzyme which converts androgens to estrogens by desaturating ring A of the steroid. This enzyme complex is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells including ovaries, placenta, testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells, adipose, and brain tissues. The enzyme complex has two components, one of which is the CYP19 gene product, the aromatase cytochrome P-450. The other component is NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase which transfers reducing equivalents to P-450(arom). EC 1.14.13.-.

Cytochrome P-450(c-21)
A steroid hydroxylase system found in adrenal cortex microsomes. It catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of corticosteroids and shows a requirement for NADPH and molecular oxygen. Its deficiency is a cause of adrenogenital syndrome. EC 1.14.99.10.

Cytochrome P-450(cam)
A monooxygenase heme-thiolate (cytochrome P-450) with camphor bound at the active site. It acts as the terminal monooxygenase in the d-camphor monooxygenase system. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site. Additionally, it is the only cytochrome P-450 enzyme with a known crystal structure. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86(20):7823-7; Proteins 1991;11(3):184-204) EC 1.14.15.1.

Cytochrome P-450(scc)
Multi-enzyme complex required for the conversion of cholesterol to adrenal cortex hormones. It releases methylpentanoate or isocaproaldehyde and pregnenolone. The complex contains cytochrome P-450, a flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and NADPH. EC 1.14.15.6.

Cytochrome P-450-cam
A monooxygenase heme-thiolate (cytochrome P-450) with camphor bound at the active site. It acts as the terminal monooxygenase in the d-camphor monooxygenase system. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site. Additionally, it is the only cytochrome P-450 enzyme with a known crystal structure. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86(20):7823-7; Proteins 1991;11(3):184-204) EC 1.14.15.1.

Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenase
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P-450-Dependent O-Dealkylase
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.

Cytochrome P-450c11AS
A multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P-450d
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P-450j
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Cytochrome P450
Isozymes which are key components of the mixed-function oxidase system responsible for the biotransformation of many foreign compounds to mutagens and carcinogens. Most mammals have several distantly related phenobarbital-inducible gene subfamilies. EC 1.13.-.

Cytochrome P450 11A1
Multi-enzyme complex required for the conversion of cholesterol to adrenal cortex hormones. It releases methylpentanoate or isocaproaldehyde and pregnenolone. The complex contains cytochrome P-450, a flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and NADPH. EC 1.14.15.6.

Cytochrome P450 11B1
A steroid hydroxylase system found in adrenal tissues. It catalyzes the 11-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and consists of an NADPH-specific flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and cytochrome P-450. Its deficiency is a cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL). EC 1.14.15.4.

Cytochrome P450 11B2
A multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P450 19
An enzyme which converts androgens to estrogens by desaturating ring A of the steroid. This enzyme complex is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells including ovaries, placenta, testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells, adipose, and brain tissues. The enzyme complex has two components, one of which is the CYP19 gene product, the aromatase cytochrome P-450. The other component is NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase which transfers reducing equivalents to P-450(arom). EC 1.14.13.-.

Cytochrome P450 1A2
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P450 2B1
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by phenobarbital in both the liver and small intestine. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, testosterone, and androstenedione. CYP2B1 also mediates the activation of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide to mutagens. EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P450 2D6
A polymorphic enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of debrisoquine. It also metabolizes several antidepressants and neuroleptics. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the population. (Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31(2): 327-331) EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P450 2E1
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Cytochrome P450 7
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3 beta,7 alpha-diol. EC 1.14.13.17.

Cytochrome P450 IA1
A cytochrome P-450 enzyme capable of activating procarcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into mutagenic compounds. Ethoxyresorufin acts as a substrate for CYP1A1 and measurement of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase provides a more direct method of detection for this enzyme. EC 1.-.

Cytochrome P450 Reductase
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.

Cytochrome P450(17 alpha)
A steroid hydroxylase system found in the microsomal membrane of the steroid-hormone producing tissues. It catalyzes the 17-hydroxylation of steroids, such as progesterone or pregnenolone in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. This is an important step in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. EC 1.14.99.9.

Cytochrome P450(cam)
A monooxygenase heme-thiolate (cytochrome P-450) with camphor bound at the active site. It acts as the terminal monooxygenase in the d-camphor monooxygenase system. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site. Additionally, it is the only cytochrome P-450 enzyme with a known crystal structure. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86(20):7823-7; Proteins 1991;11(3):184-204) EC 1.14.15.1.

Cytochrome P450aldo
A multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. EC 1.14.99.-.

Cytochrome P450scc
Multi-enzyme complex required for the conversion of cholesterol to adrenal cortex hormones. It releases methylpentanoate or isocaproaldehyde and pregnenolone. The complex contains cytochrome P-450, a flavoprotein, a non-heme iron protein, and NADPH. EC 1.14.15.6.

Cytochrome Peroxidase
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.

Cytochrome Reductase, Lactic
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.

Cytochrome-c Oxidase
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome-c Oxidase (Complex IV)
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome-c Oxidase Deficiencies
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Cytochrome-c Oxidase Deficiency
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Cytochrome-c Oxidase Subunit IV
The terminal oxidase of the respiratory chain. It collects electrons that are transferred from reduced CYTOCHROME C and donates them to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. It is composed of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME B, two copper atoms, and 13 different protein subunits, three of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. It is also called complex IV of the respiratory chain. (from Scriver et al., The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed, p2261 and p2368)

Cytochrome-c Peroxidase
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.

Cytochromes
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)

Cytodiagnoses
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Cytodiagnosis
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Cytofluorometries, Flow
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.

Cytofluorometry, Flow
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.

Cytogenetic
A branch of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular behavior of genes and chromosomes during cell division.

Cytogenetic Analyses
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Analysis
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Technic
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Technic, Molecular
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Technics
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Technics, Molecular
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Technique
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Technique, Molecular
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Techniques
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetic Techniques, Molecular
Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.

Cytogenetics
The study of chromosomes, the visible carriers of DNA, the hereditary material. Cytogenetics is a fusion science due to joining of cytology (the study of cells) with genetics (the study of inherited variation).

Cytogenetics, clinical
The application of cytogenetics to clinical medicine.

Cytohistologic Preparation Technic
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Cytohistologic Preparation Technics
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Cytohistologic Preparation Technique
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Cytohistologic Preparation Techniques
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Cytohistological Preparation Technic
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Cytohistological Preparation Technics
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Cytohistological Preparation Technique
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Cytohistological Preparation Techniques
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Cytokeratin
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin 13
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin 16
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin 17
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin 18
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin 19
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin 4
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin 8
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin 9
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin D
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin Hax
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin Hbx
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin, Endo-A
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin, Endo-B
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokeratin, Endo-C
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins important both as structural proteins and as keys to the study of protein conformation. The family represents the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails, horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth enamel. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms an alpha-helix, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure.

Cytokine
A small protein released by cells that has a specific effect on the interactions between cells, on communications between cells or on the behavior of cells. The cytokines includes the interleukins, lymphokines and cell signal molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor and the interferons, which trigger inflammation and respond to infections.

Cytokine Receptor
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Cytokine Receptors
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Cytokine Synthesis Inhibitory Factor
Factor that is a coregulator of mast cell growth. It is produced by T-cells and B-cells and shows extensive homology with the Epstein-Barr virus BCRFI gene.

Cytokines
Peptides which regulate cellular growth, differentiation and activation.

Cytokines Receptors
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Cytokines, Chemotactic
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.

Cytokineses
The fission of a cell.

Cytokinesis
The fission of a cell.

Cytokinetic
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one cell division and the end of the next, by which cellular material is divided between daughter cells.

Cytokinetics
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one cell division and the end of the next, by which cellular material is divided between daughter cells.

Cytokinins
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.

Cytolipins
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.

Cytologic Effect
Minute protoplasmic masses that make up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus which is surrounded by protoplasm which contains the various organelles and is enclosed in the cell or plasma membrane. Cells are the fundamental, structural, and functional units of living organisms. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Cytologic Effects
Minute protoplasmic masses that make up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus which is surrounded by protoplasm which contains the various organelles and is enclosed in the cell or plasma membrane. Cells are the fundamental, structural, and functional units of living organisms. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Cytology
The study of cells.

Cytolysins
Substances elaborated by microorganisms, plants or animals that are specifically toxic to individual cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms.

Cytolytic T cell
Cell that kills target cells bearing appropriate antigen within the groove of an MHC class I molecule that is identical to that of the T cell.

Cytolytic Terminal Complement Complex
The assembly of complement plasma glycoproteins C5b, C6, C7, C8, and polymeric C9 as a group on biological membranes. The complex forms transmembrane channels which displace lipid molecules and other constituents, thus disrupting the phospholipid bilayer of target cells leading to cell lysis by osmotic leakage. The formation of the membrane attack complex is the terminal step in the complement cascade.

Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.

Cytomegalic Inclusion Diseases
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.

Cytomegaloviral Retinitis
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.

Cytomegalovirus
A virus that infects cells and causes them to become enlarged. Babies infected with the virus develop mental and sensory disorders.

Cytomegalovirus infection
A common viral infection transmitted by saliva, breast milk, or urine.Relatively rare and relatively mild, the infection does occasionally causedeafness and neurological problems in newborns.

Cytomegalovirus Infection
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.

Cytomegalovirus Infections
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.

Cytomegalovirus Retinitis
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.

Cytomegalovirus Vaccines
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.

Cytomegalovirus, Guinea pig
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, whose viruses have been isolated from lymphocytes. HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN is the type species.

Cytomegalovirus, Mouse
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.

Cytomegalovirus, Murine
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.

Cytomegalovirus, Rat
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.

Cytomegaloviruses
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.

Cytomegaloviruses, Guinea pig
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, whose viruses have been isolated from lymphocytes. HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN is the type species.

Cytomegaloviruses, Mouse
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.

Cytomegaloviruses, Murine
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.

Cytomegaloviruses, Rat
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.

Cytomel
Cytomel is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): liothyronine sodium.

Cytometries, Flow
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.

Cytometries, Image
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.

Cytometry, flow
Analysis of biological material by detection of the light-absorbing or fluorescing properties of cells or subcellular fractions such as chromosomes passing in a narrow stream through a laser beam. Flow cytometry is used with automated sorting devices to sort successive droplets of the stream into different fractions depending on the fluorescence emitted by each droplet.

Cytometry, Flow
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.

Cytometry, Image
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.

Cytonal
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)

Cytopathic Effect, Viral
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.

Cytopathic Effects, Viral
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.

Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.

Cytopathogenic Effects, Viral
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.

Cytopathy, Kearn-Sayre Mitochondrial
A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, cardiomyopathy (with conduction block), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984)

Cytophaga
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in soil, decomposing organic matter, and freshwater and marine habitats.

Cytophagaceae
A family of gram-negative, gliding bacteria found in soil and sea water.

Cytophagales
An order of gram-negative, gliding bacteria showing gliding motility on solid surfaces.

Cytophosphan
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the liver to form the active ALDOPHOSPHAMIDE. It is used in the treatment of lymphomas, leukemias, etc. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.

Cytophotometries
A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.

Cytophotometry
A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.

Cytoplasm
The living matter within a cell (excluding the nucleus) that is responsible for the function of the cell (for example, protein synthesis).

Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors
Proteins in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind signaling molecules and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. The major groups are the steroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, STEROID), which usually are found in the cytoplasm, and the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE), which usually are found in the nucleus. Receptors, unlike enzymes, generally do not catalyze chemical changes in their ligands.

Cytoplasmic Aspartate Aminotransferase
An aspartate aminotransferase found in the CYTOPLASM.

Cytoplasmic Deoxyriboviruses, Icosahedral
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus, and Lymphocystivirus.

Cytoplasmic Elongation Factor 2
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.

Cytoplasmic Filament
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.

Cytoplasmic Filaments
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.

Cytoplasmic Granule
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.

Cytoplasmic Granules
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.

Cytoplasmic Hormone Receptors
Proteins in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind signaling molecules and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. The major groups are the steroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, STEROID), which usually are found in the cytoplasm, and the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE), which usually are found in the nucleus. Receptors, unlike enzymes, generally do not catalyze chemical changes in their ligands.

Cytoplasmic Inclusion
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or Mallory bodies), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cytoplasmic Inclusions
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or Mallory bodies), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cytoplasmic Inheritance
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA ; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS or from intracellular parasites such as viruses and plasmids. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.

Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The eight genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, and Oryzavirus.

Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Viruses
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The eight genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, and Oryzavirus.

Cytoplasmic Receptors
Proteins in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind signaling molecules and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. The major groups are the steroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, STEROID), which usually are found in the cytoplasm, and the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE), which usually are found in the nucleus. Receptors, unlike enzymes, generally do not catalyze chemical changes in their ligands.

Cytoplasmic Streaming
The movement of protoplasm within a cell. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the amoeba, it is responsible for the movement of the entire cell.

Cytoplasmic Streamings
The movement of protoplasm within a cell. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the amoeba, it is responsible for the movement of the entire cell.

Cytoplasmic Structure
Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.

Cytoplasmic Structures
Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.

Cytoplasmic Vesicle
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.

Cytoplasmic Vesicles
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.

Cytoplasms
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

Cytoprotection
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.

Cytosar
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)

Cytosar U
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)

Cytosar-u
Cytosar-u is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): cytarabine.

Cytosar-U
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)

CytosarU
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)

Cytosine
One of the pyrimidine nitrogenous bases occurring in both DNA and RNA.

Cytosine (C)
One member of the G-C (guanine-cytosine) pair of bases in DNA.

Cytosine Arabinoside
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)

Cytosine Arabinoside Triphosphate
A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.

Cytosine Polynucleotides
A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

Cytosine Ribonucleoside
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar D-ribose.

Cytosine Riboside
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar D-ribose.

Cytosine Thymine Dimers
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ultraviolet irradiation. They consist of two adjacent pyrimidine nucleotides, usually thymine nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers stop DNA replication.

Cytosine-5-Methylase, DNA
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 5-position of cytosine or to the 6-position in adenine in mammalian DNA. EC 2.1.1.37.

Cytosine-Thymine Dimers
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ultraviolet irradiation. They consist of two adjacent pyrimidine nucleotides, usually thymine nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers stop DNA replication.

Cytosis
1. Suffix referring to cells, as in anisocytosis (inequality in the size of red blood cells), elliptocytosis (elliptical red cells), and phagocytosis (ingestion of cells). 2. Suffix connoting an increase in cells, as in leukocytosis (increase in white blood cells) and lymphocytosis (increase in lymphocytes).

Cytoskeletal Filament
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.

Cytoskeletal Filaments
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.

Cytoskeletal Proteins
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.

Cytoskeleton
System of protein filaments in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell a polarized shape and the capacity for directed movement. Its most abundant components are actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.

Cytoskeletons
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.

Cytosol Aminopeptidase
A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. EC 3.4.11.1

Cytosol and Nuclear Receptors
Proteins in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind signaling molecules and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. The major groups are the steroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, STEROID), which usually are found in the cytoplasm, and the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE), which usually are found in the nucleus. Receptors, unlike enzymes, generally do not catalyze chemical changes in their ligands.

Cytosolic and Nuclear Receptors
Proteins in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind signaling molecules and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. The major groups are the steroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, STEROID), which usually are found in the cytoplasm, and the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE), which usually are found in the nucleus. Receptors, unlike enzymes, generally do not catalyze chemical changes in their ligands.

Cytospaz
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE.

Cytostatic Agents
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

Cytostatic Drugs
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

Cytostatic Factor
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.

Cytostatics
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

Cytotactin
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)

Cytotaxinogens
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells or organisms. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract leukocytes, macrophages, or other cells to the site of infection or insult.

Cytotaxins
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells or organisms. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract leukocytes, macrophages, or other cells to the site of infection or insult.

Cytotec
Cytotec is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): misoprostol.

Cytotoxic
Capable of killing cells.

Cytotoxic Antibiotics
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the development of neoplasms.

Cytotoxic Brain Edema
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)

Cytotoxic Cerebral Edema
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)

Cytotoxic T cell
Cell that kills target cells bearing appropriate antigen within the groove of an MHC class I molecule that is identical to that of the T cell.

Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from natural killer cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) and from KILLER CELLS mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte
A T cell that is antigen-specific and is able to search out and kill specific types of virus-infected cells. When cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) find cells carrying the viral peptide they are looking for, they induce these cells to secrete proteins that attract nearby macrophages (a type of white blood cells). These macrophages then surround and destroy the infected cells. CTLs are important in the body's response to viruses and cancer.

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from natural killer cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) and from KILLER CELLS mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from natural killer cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) and from KILLER CELLS mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.

Cytotoxicities, Antibody-Dependent Cell
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a ""killer"" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.

Cytotoxicity Test, Immunologic
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Cytotoxicity Test, Immunological
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Cytotoxicity Tests, Anti Human Globulin Complement Dependent
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Cytotoxicity Tests, Anti-Human Globulin Complement-Dependent
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunological
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Cytotoxicity, Antibody Dependent Cell
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a ""killer"" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.

Cytotoxicity, Antibody-Dependent Cell
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a ""killer"" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.

Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid ""killer"" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.

Cytotoxin Antibody Conjugates
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including radioactive isotopes and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies, and antigens. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.

Cytotoxin V, Vibrio Cholera
The enterotoxin from Vibrio cholerae. It is a protein that consists of two major components, the heavy (H) or A peptide and the light (L) or B peptide or choleragenoid. The B peptide anchors the protein to intestinal epithelial cells, while the A peptide, enters the cytoplasm, and activates adenylate cyclase, and production of cAMP. Increased levels of cAMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.

Cytotoxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Substances that are toxic to leukocytes. Specifically exotoxins produced by some pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Cytotoxin, Shigella
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the protype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.

Cytotoxin, Vero
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.

Cytotoxin, Vero Cell
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.

Cytotoxin, VT2
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA-LIKE TOXIN I.

Cytotoxin-Antibody Conjugates
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including radioactive isotopes and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies, and antigens. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.

Cytotoxin-Like Basic Protein (Cobra Venom)
Most abundant proteins in cobra (Naja of the Elapids) venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contracture, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis. Synonyms: cobramine A; cobramine B; cobra cytotoxin; gamma toxin; membrane-active polypeptide.

Cytotoxins
Substances elaborated by microorganisms, plants or animals that are specifically toxic to individual cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms.

Cytotoxins, Vero Cell
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.

Cytovene
Cytovene is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ganciclovir.

Cytovene iv
Cytovene iv is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ganciclovir sodium.

Cytoxan
Cytoxan is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): cyclophosphamide .

Cytoxicities, Antibody-Dependent Cell
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a ""killer"" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.

Cytoxicity, Antibody-Dependent Cell
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a ""killer"" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.

Cytoxins, Vero
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.



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Caseous
Having a consistency like that of cottage cheese.

Catarrh
Inflammation of a mucous membrane with free discharge.

Cholelith
Gallstone; bile stone.

Contralateral
Affecting or pertaining to the opposite side.

Corrugated
Having a ripple-like distortion.

Cytomegaly

Cholecystotomy
Incision into the gallbladder.

Categorical attitude
Abstract attitude. This is a type of thinking that includes voluntarily shifting one's mind set from a specific aspect of a situation to the general aspect; It involves keeping in mind different simultaneous aspects of a situation while grasping the essentials of the situation. It can involve breaking a situation down into its parts and isolating them voluntarily; planning ahead ideationally; and/or thinking or performing symbolically. A characteristic of many psychiatric disorders is the person's inability to assume the abstract attitude or to shift readily from the concrete to the abstract and back again as demanded by circumstances.

Capgra's syndrome
The delusion that others, or the self, have been replaced by imposters. It typically follows the development of negative feelings toward the other person that the subject cannot accept and attributes, instead, to the imposter. The syndrome has been reported in paranoid schizophrenia and, even more frequently, in organic brain disease.

Catalepsy
Waxy flexibility--rigid maintenance of a body position over an extended period of time.

Cataplexy
Episodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone resulting in the individual collapsing, often in association with intense emotions such as laughter, anger, fear, or surprise.

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   ytomegaly / ctomegaly / cyomegaly / cytmegaly / cytoegaly / cytomgaly / cytomealy / cytomegly / cytomegay / cytomegal / ccytomegaly / cyytomegaly / cyttomegaly / cytoomegaly / cytommegaly / cytomeegaly / cytomeggaly / cytomegaaly / cytomegally / cytomegalyy / xytomegaly / sytomegaly / dytomegaly / fytomegaly / vytomegaly / ytomegaly / c6tomegaly / c7tomegaly / cutomegaly / cjtomegaly / chtomegaly / cgtomegaly / cttomegaly / c5tomegaly / cy5omegaly / cy6omegaly / cyyomegaly / cyhomegaly / cygomegaly / cyfomegaly / cyromegaly / cy4omegaly / cyt9megaly / cyt0megaly / cytpmegaly / cytlmegaly / cytkmegaly / cytimegaly / cyt8megaly / cytonegaly / cytojegaly / cytokegaly / cyto,egaly / cyto egaly / cytom3galy / cytom4galy / cytomrgaly / cytomfgaly / cytomdgaly / cytomsgaly / cytomwgaly / cytometaly / cytomegqly / cytomegwly / cytomegsly / cytomegxly / cytomegzly / cytomegaoy / cytomegapy / cytomega;y / cytomega.y / cytomega,y / cytomegaky / cytomegaiy / cytomegal6 / cytomegal7 / cytomegalu / cytomegalj / cytomegalh / cytomegalg / cytomegalt / cytomegal5 /