Caudal anesthesia
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  Caudal anesthesia



Caudal anesthesia

   Anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic into the caudal canal, the sacral portion of the spinal canal. Caudal anesthesia is used to provide anesthesia and analgesia (pain relief) below the umbilicus. It may be the sole anesthetic or combined with general anesthesia. Also called caudal epidural anesthesia or a caudal block.

RELATED TERMS
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Anesthesia
Depending on the type of treatment a patient is to receive, a dentist may recommend some type of dental anesthesia. Local anesthesia involves the numbing of the teeth and gums. Topical anesthetic may be used to help make the injection more tolerable. Most dental work falls under this type of anesthesia (i.e., fillings, crowns, root canals and gum surgery) and may cause the patient to feel a temporary numbness. Nitrous Oxide or "laughing gas" may be used in combination with local anesthetics or alone if the patient cannot tolerate a local injection. Nitrous Oxide is an anti-anxiety agent that helps relax both children and adults. Patients wear a mask to breathe in the nitrous air. The effects soon dissipate once the nitrous is turned off and the patient begins to breathe oxygen through the mask. There are very few known side effects with Nitrous Oxide. General anesthesia is used during more complex procedures or for those that experience a high level of anxiety and wish to be asleep during the treatment. An anesthesiologist or a dentist who has received special training administers general anesthesia. Sometimes oral medications are used to relieve dental pain or anxiety. These analgesics may be used in combination with the above types of anesthesia or alone to help relieve post treatment discomfort.

Injection
Medication which is put into the body via a syringe and a needle.

Local
In the area of the tumor; confined to one specific area.

Anesthetic
An agent that causes loss of sensation with or without the loss of consciousness.

Caudal
The anatomical term for towards the tail. i.e. the kidney is caudal to the shoulder. See Cranial/Superior/Inferior

Analgesia
A state of pain relief; an agent lessening pain.

Umbilicus
The scar marking the site of entry of the umbilical cord into the fetus. It is inconspicuous in most domestic species.

Epidural
Anesthesia administered to a laboring mother into the epidural space at the base of the spine to numb the lower body. It decreases or eliminates pain, enabling her to save her strength for pushing. It can numb the lower body entirely, so she's unable to feel contractions when it is time to push out the baby.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Cauda equina
A bundle of spinal nerve roots that arise from the bottom end of the spinal cord. The cauda equina comprises the roots of all the spinal nerve roots below the level of the first lumbar (L1) vertebra, namely the sacral and coccygeal nerves. So named because it resembles the tail (Latin, cauda) of a horse (Latin, equus). See also Cauda equina syndrome.

Cauda equina syndrome
Neurogenic claudication, resembling intermittent (arterial) claudication. Results from narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis).

Caudad
Toward the feet (or, in embryology, toward the tail), as opposed to cranial. The spinal cord is caudad to the brain.

Caudal
The anatomical term for towards the tail. i.e. the kidney is caudal to the shoulder. See Cranial/Superior/Inferior

Caudate nucleus
In each hemisphere of the brain, the most medial of the four basal ganglia, partly responsible for body movement and coordination. So named because it looks anatomically tail-like.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Catheterization, venous
The insertion of a tiny tube (a catheter) into a peripheral or central vein to deliver fluids or medication. This is the most frequently used method for the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids and IV meds (medications).

Cancer, Hodgkin disease (adult)
A type of lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system). The most common symptom of Hodgkin disease is a painless swelling in the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin. Hodgkin disease is diagnosed when abnormal tissue is detected by a pathologist after a biopsy of an enlarged lymph node. Treatment usually includes radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Regular follow-up examinations are important after treatment for Hodgkin disease. Patients treated for Hodgkin disease have an increased risk of developing other types of cancer later in life, especially leukemia.

Cation
In chemistry, a positively charged ion. A cation is as opposed to an anion, which is a negatively charged ion.

Cauda equina
A bundle of spinal nerve roots that arise from the bottom end of the spinal cord. The cauda equina comprises the roots of all the spinal nerve roots below the level of the first lumbar (L1) vertebra, namely the sacral and coccygeal nerves. So named because it resembles the tail (Latin, cauda) of a horse (Latin, equus). See also Cauda equina syndrome.

Caudad
Toward the feet (or, in embryology, toward the tail), as opposed to cranial. The spinal cord is caudad to the brain.

Caudal anesthesia

Caudate nucleus
In each hemisphere of the brain, the most medial of the four basal ganglia, partly responsible for body movement and coordination. So named because it looks anatomically tail-like.

Caul
In obstetrics, the caul is the amnion, one of the two fetal membranes, the other being the chorion. To be born in a caul meant to be born with the head covered by the amnion (or be born within an intact unruptured amnion). To be born in a caul was long believed to be a sign of future greatness.

Cauliflower-ear deformity
Destruction of the underlying cartilage framework of the outer ear (pinnae), usually caused by either infection or trauma, resulting in a thickening of the ear. Classically, blood collects (hematoma) between the ear cartilage and the skin. There is a marked thickening of the entire ear which may be so extensive that the shape of the ear becomes unrecognizable. The ear is said to look like a piece of cauliflower. It is typically seen in wrestlers and boxers who have had repeated trauma to the ear.

Caulophyllum thalictroides
Blue cohosh.

Causes of cancer
Cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases. Benign tumors are not cancer; malignant tumors are cancer. Most cancers are named for the type of cell or the organ in which they begin. When cancer spreads (metastasizes), the new tumor has the same name as the original (primary) tumor. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer for both men and women. The second most common cancer in men is prostate cancer, in women it is breast cancer.

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