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    The anatomical term for towards the tail. i.e. the kidney is caudal to the shoulder. See Cranial/Superior/Inferior


1. Concerned with anatomy. 2. Concerned with dissection. 3. Related to the structure of an organism.

One of the paired organs that excrete urine. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs (about 11 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick) lying on either side of the vertebral column, posterior to the peritoneum, about opposite the twelfth thoracic and first three lumbar vertebrae.

The anatomical term for towards the tail. i.e. the kidney is caudal to the shoulder. See Cranial/Superior/Inferior

The ball-and-socket joint connecting the arm with the body.


Cauda equina
A bundle of spinal nerve roots that arise from the bottom end of the spinal cord. The cauda equina comprises the roots of all the spinal nerve roots below the level of the first lumbar (L1) vertebra, namely the sacral and coccygeal nerves. So named because it resembles the tail (Latin, cauda) of a horse (Latin, equus). See also Cauda equina syndrome.

Cauda equina syndrome
Neurogenic claudication, resembling intermittent (arterial) claudication. Results from narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis).

Toward the feet (or, in embryology, toward the tail), as opposed to cranial. The spinal cord is caudad to the brain.

Caudal anesthesia
Anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic into the caudal canal, the sacral portion of the spinal canal. Caudal anesthesia is used to provide anesthesia and analgesia (pain relief) below the umbilicus. It may be the sole anesthetic or combined with general anesthesia. Also called caudal epidural anesthesia or a caudal block.

Caudate nucleus
In each hemisphere of the brain, the most medial of the four basal ganglia, partly responsible for body movement and coordination. So named because it looks anatomically tail-like.


Cri du chat
A type of mental retardation. The name is derived from a catlike cry emitted by children with this disorder, which is caused by partial deletion of chromosome 5.

Conversion symptom
A loss of, or alteration in, voluntary motor or sensory functioning suggesting a neurological or general medical condition. Psychological factors are judged to be associated with the development of the symptom, and the symptom is not fully explained by a neurological or general medical condition or the direct effects of a substance. The symptom is not intentionally produced or feigned and is not culturally sanctioned.

Culture-specific syndromes
Forms of disturbed behavior specific to certain cultural systems that do not conform to western nosologic entities. Some commonly cited syndromes are the following: amok; koro; latah; piblokto, and windigo.

Classical conditioning
Elicitation of a response by a stimulus that normally does not elicit that response. The response is one that is mediated primarily by the autonomic nervous system (such as salivation or a change in heart rate). A previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly presented just before an unconditioned stimulus that normally elicits that response. When the response subsequently occurs in the presence of the previously neutral stimulus, it is called a conditioned response, and the previously neutral stimulus, a conditioned stimulus.

The anatomical term for towards the head; also the general term for of the head. i.e. the lungs are cranial to the pelvis. See Caudal/Inferior/Superior


A generally weakened, emaciated condition of the body.

Vitamin D.

1. Localized thickening of the skin. 2. A fibrous band formed around the site of a fracture that seals the ends of the bone together and is then gradually replaced by mature bone.

The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree. Commonly used to express the amount of energy-producing value in food.

A disease in children affecting the growth plate of the head of the thigh, caused by interference in the blood supply.

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