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    One of the biogenic amines, including epinephrine, which is both a hormone (adrenaline) and a neurotransmitter; and dopamine, a neurotransmitter.


Organic compounds containing the amino group. Amines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine are significant because they function as neurotransmitters.

One of two chemicals (the other is norepinephrine) released by the adrenal gland that increases the speed and force of heart beats. It dilates the airways to improve breathing and narrows blood vessels in the skin and intestine so that an increased flow of blood reaches the muscles and allows them to cope with the demands of exercise.

A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

Specialized chemical messenger (eg, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) that sends a message from one nerve cell to another. Most neurotransmitters play different roles throughout the body, many of which are not yet known.

A neurotransmitter that works in an axis with serotonin.


COMT. An enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of catecholamines, including the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. COMT is also important in the metabolism of catechol drugs used in the treatment of hypertension, asthma, and Parkinson disease. A genetic polymorphism (a common normal variant) in COMT contributes to the responses to pain and stress.

Categorical attitude
Abstract attitude. This is a type of thinking that includes voluntarily shifting one's mind set from a specific aspect of a situation to the general aspect; It involves keeping in mind different simultaneous aspects of a situation while grasping the essentials of the situation. It can involve breaking a situation down into its parts and isolating them voluntarily; planning ahead ideationally; and/or thinking or performing symbolically. A characteristic of many psychiatric disorders is the person's inability to assume the abstract attitude or to shift readily from the concrete to the abstract and back again as demanded by circumstances.

Categorical data
Data evaluated by sorting values into various categories (for example, severe, moderate, and mild).


Cocaine, from the leaves of the coca plant, is one of the most powerfully addictive drugs. Cocaine is distributed on the street in two main forms: cocaine hydrochloride, a white crystalline powder that can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected; and crack cocaine hydrochloride that has been processed with ammonia or baking soda and water into a freebase cocaine. These chips, chunks, or rocks can be smoked. Heavy use of cocaine may produce hallucinations, paranoia, aggression, insomnia and depression. Cocaine in powder-form is also called coke, snow, nose candy, flake, blow, big C, lady, white and snowbirds.

Cult addiction
This very serious addiction is among the gravest dependence problems, and a widespread one. The atypical dissociative syndrome created by cults and sects is targeted to emotion, and the patients often lose their free will and decision making, and get completely subordinated to the cult's instructions.

Known under the brand Tagamet, this anti-histamine is primarily used to inhibit gastric secretions in people with ulcers. Cimitedine also has some weak anti-androgenic and has been used with mixed success for treating Androgenetic Alopecia.

An immunosuppressive agent derived from fermentation of a soil fungi.

A psychiatric syndrome of being immobile and unresponsive to sensory stimuli, but not unaware of them.


A paraphilia of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent on having a catheter inserted up into the urethra.

Central Nervous System
That part of the nervous system that includes exclusively the bone encased brain and the spinal cord, as opposed to the outlying peripheral nervous system, consisting of the somatic nervous system, which governs usually voluntary musculo-skeletal reactions and the autonomic nervous system, which controls usually involuntary visceral, homeostatic, glandular and circulatory activity.

Cerebral cortex
The external gray layer of the brain, the neocortex

The neck or neck-like part of an organ; specifically the neck of the lower part of the uterus, or womb, where the vagina and uterus unite.

Fixed curvature or tying down of the penis or hypertrophied clitoris as in the hypospadiac birth defect characteristic of various types of hermaphroditism.

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