Case-to-infection ratio
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  Case-to-infection ratio

Case-to-infection ratio

   The ratio of the number of cases of a disease compared to the number of infections with the agent that causes the disease. Also called the case-to-infection proportion.


Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.


Case report form (CRF)
A printed, optical, or electronic document designed to record all of the protocol-required information to be reported to the sponsor on each trial subject.

Case-fatality proportion
The number of cases of a disease ending in death compared to the number of cases of the disease. Usually expressed as a percentage.

The main protein found in milk and other dairy products.

Having a consistency like that of cottage cheese.


Carpal tunnel release
A surgical procedure to relieve pressure exerted on the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (the carpal tunnel syndrome). The median nerve is pinched in the wrist as it passes through the carpal tunnel. The buildup of scar tissue inside the carpal tunnel leads to this problem. Treatment options include splinting, anti-inflammatory agents, and surgery. The surgical release is performed via a small incision using conventional surgery or a fiberoptic scope (endoscopic carpal tunnel repair).

Carrier test
A test designed to detect carriers of a gene for recessive genetic disorder. For example, carrier testing is done for sickle cell trait, thalassemia trait, and the Tay-Sachs gene.

Cartilage hair hypoplasia syndrome
A specific genetic form of short-limbed dwarfism with skeletal features that also include normal head, inability to fully extends the elbows, chest cage deformity, bow legs (genu varum), and the tibia shorter than the fibula. The fingers are usually loose-jointed and the fingernails foreshortened. Biopsy shows hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of cartilage to be the nature of the skeletal abnormality. The hair is unusually fine, sparse and light-colored. Microscopically, it has an abnormally small caliber. Many patients with cartilage hair hypoplasia have a major immunologic defect that is manifested, for example, as an unusual susceptibility to chickenpox. In addition to lymphopenia (lack of lymphocytes), some patients have anemia and neutropenia (lack of neutrophiliuc white blood cells). There is an increased malignancy risk, especially lymphoma and skin cancer. A condition called aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease) is also found in some patients.

A sequence of successive activation reactions involving enzymes (enzyme cascade) or hormones (hormone cascade) characterized by a series of amplifications of an initial stimulus. In blood coagulation, for example, each enzyme activates the next until the final product, the fibrin clot, is reached.

Case-fatality proportion
The number of cases of a disease ending in death compared to the number of cases of the disease. Usually expressed as a percentage.

Case-to-infection ratio

The main protein found in milk and other dairy products.

Cashew allergy
An allergic reaction to cashew nuts. Cashew allergy can be isolated, meaning that the individual is only allergic to cashews and not to other nuts, or the allergy may extend to other kinds of tree nuts such as walnuts and pistachios. Isolated cashew allergy can strike children or adults. No prior exposure to cashews is required for an allergic reaction to cashews.

Caspase 3
An enzyme that plays a key role in programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Caspase 3 has been called the "henchman that goes around and executes the cell." It is a member of the family of asparate-specific cysteinyl proteases and is also known as caspase-3, CPP32, apopain, or YAMA.

A pre-existing structure into which an insert can be moved. In molecular biology, a gene conversion process in which the old gene is replaced with a copy of a silent gene and the new copy becomes active. As the process involves replacing one ready made construct with another in an active slot, it is termed a cassette mechanism.

Casting, serial
The use of successive casts to reshape deformed or spastic limbs.

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