CA 125
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  CA 125



CA 125

   A cancer marker, a protein normally made by certain cells in the body including those of the uterine tubes, uterus, cervix, and the lining of the chest and abdominal cavities (the peritoneum and pleura). CA 125 stands for cancer antigen 125.

RELATED TERMS
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Cancer
Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.

Protein
Any of a group of complex organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur, the characteristic element being nitrogen. Proteins, the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and each protein has a unique genetically defined amino acid sequence which determines its specific shape and function. Their roles include enzymatic catalysis, transport and storage, coordinated motion, nerve impulse generation and many others.

Uterus
The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum, that sheds its lining each month during menstruation and in which a fertilized egg (ovum) becomes implanted and the fetus develops.

Cervix
The neck or neck-like part of an organ; specifically the neck of the lower part of the uterus, or womb, where the vagina and uterus unite.

Chest
The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains the lungs, the heart and part of the aorta. The walls of the chest are supported by the dorsal vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum.

Abdominal
Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis. The abdomen is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm, the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs. The abdomen includes a host of organs including the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, appendix, gallbladder, and bladder. The word "abdomen" has a curious story behind it. It comes from the Latin "abdodere", to hide. The idea was that whatever was eaten was hidden in the abdomen.

Cavities
Holes in the two outer layers of a tooth called the enamel and the dentin. The enamel is the outermost white hard surface and the dentin is the yellow layer just beneath enamel. Both layers serve to protect the inner living tooth tissue called the pulp, where blood vessels and nerves reside. Small cavities may not cause pain, and may be unnoticed by the patient. Larger cavities can collect food, and the inner pulp of the affected tooth can become irritated by bacterial toxins, foods that are cold, hot, sour, or sweet - causing toothache. Also referred to as caries.

Peritoneum
Strong, smooth, colorless membrane that lines the walls of the abdomen and covers numerous body organs including the bladder.

Antigen
A substance which, when present in animal tissue, stimulates the production of antibodies



SIMILAR TERMS
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CA 15-3
A tumor marker most useful in following the course of treatment in women diagnosed with breast cancer, especially advanced breast cancer. CA 153 levels are rarely elevated in women with early stage breast cancer.

CA 19-9
A tumor marker initially found in colorectal cancer patients, but subsequently also identified in patients with pancreatic, stomach, and bile duct cancer. In those who have pancreatic cancer, higher levels of CA 199 tend to be associated with more advanced disease. Noncancerous conditions that may elevate CA 199 levels include gallstones, pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and cholecystitis.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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C4 (cervical vertebra)
The fourth cervical (neck) vertebra from the top.

C5 (cervical vertebra)
The fifth cervical (neck) vertebra from the top.

C6 (cervical vertebra)
The sixth cervical (neck) vertebra from the top. The next-to-last of the seven cervical vertebrae.

C7 (cervical vertebra)
C7 is the symbol for the 7th cervical (neck) vertebral bone (C7) which is sometimes called the prominent vertebra due to the length of its spinous process (the projection off the back of the vertebral body).

Ca
1.The symbol for calcium. 2. Short (and slang) for cancer and carcinoma. 3. Abbreviation for cardiac arrest; chronological age; coronary artery. 4. Abbreviation for circa, meaning about or approximately, as in ca. 1 mg.

CA 125

CA 15-3
A tumor marker most useful in following the course of treatment in women diagnosed with breast cancer, especially advanced breast cancer. CA 153 levels are rarely elevated in women with early stage breast cancer.

CA 19-9
A tumor marker initially found in colorectal cancer patients, but subsequently also identified in patients with pancreatic, stomach, and bile duct cancer. In those who have pancreatic cancer, higher levels of CA 199 tend to be associated with more advanced disease. Noncancerous conditions that may elevate CA 199 levels include gallstones, pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and cholecystitis.

CA 27-29
A tumor marker similar to the CA 153 that is found in the blood of most breast cancer patients. CA 2729 levels may be used in conjunction with other procedures (such as mammograms and measurements of other tumor marker levels) to check for recurrence in women previously treated for stage II and stage III breast cancer.

CABG
Coronary artery bypass graft; and Coronary artery bypass grafting.

Cachectic
Having cachexia, physical wasting with loss of weight and muscle mass due to disease. Patients with advanced cancer, AIDS, and some other major chronic progressive diseases may appear cachectic.

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