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   An abnormal sound heard when a stethoscope is placed over an artery.


Not normal. Deviating from the usual structure, position, condition, or behavior. In referring to a growth, abnormal may mean that it is cancerous or premalignant (likely to become cancer).

The instrument used to listen to the heart and other sounds in the body.

A blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body.


A bruise or contusion or ecchymoses is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. Normally minor but painful, bruises can be serious, leading to hematoma, or can be associated with serious injuries, including fractures and internal bleeding. Minor bruises are easily recognized by their characteristic blue or purple color in the days following the injury.


Blood Thinners (anticoagulants)
Medicine used to prevent clots from forming or getting larger. Heparin is generally given through the vein and Coumadin (warfarin) by mouth.

Blood Typing
A test that can help establish compatibility between two different types of blood. Blood types include A, B, AB or O.

Body Mass Index
The number, derived by dividing body weight by height squared; used to determine health risk created by excess body weight.

Brain Death
Brain damage that is so severe and extensive that the brain cannot recover. Breathing has stopped, but the circulation may still be continuing because of artificial ventilation. Donor organs can only be taken from people who are declared brain dead.

Breathing Tube (endotracheal tube)
A temporary tube put into the nose or mouth. Anesthesia or air and oxygen pass through the tube allowing artificial breathing.


Most commonly affects the small and medium sized arteries, veins, and nerves. The arteries of the arms and legs become narrowed or blocked, causing lack of blood supply (ischemia) to the fingers, hands, toes and feet.

Bundle Branch
The electrical impulses travel down a normal pathway through the heart. From the SA node, the impulse travels to the AV node. Then it goes to the bundle of His. The bundle divides into a right bundle and the left bundle. The bundles take the impulse through the ventricles (bottom chambers) to cause them to contract.

Bundle Branch Block
Normally, the electrical impulse travels down both the right and left bundle branches at the same speed and the ventricles contract at the same time. If there is a block in one of the branches, it is called a bundle branch block. A bundle branch block causes one ventricle to contract just after the other ventricle.

A surgical procedure designed to increase blood flow to an organ or extremity that has narrowing or blockage of the blood supplying artery. Examples include coronary artery bypass surgery, aortic replacement, ABI (aorta-bi-iliac), ABF (aorto-bi-femoral), and femoral-popliteal bypass)

B variant GM2-gangliosidosis
See: Tay-Sachs disease.

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