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    The two respiratory tubes branching into the two lungs at the lower end of the trachea. They branch into progressively smaller passageways, the bronchioles, and finally reach the alveoli, the location where gas exchange occurs.


The main respiratory organs in the chest where blood is oxygenated.

The trachea is a tube which extends from the larynx to the esophagus. It is connected to the trachea at about the area where the larynx is located. It functions as a tube for air to pass through from the external environment to the lungs. It is composed of C-shaped cartilage rings which are embedded in the smooth muscle. The cartilage prevents the trachea from collapsing and closing off the airway.

The sacs in the lungs at the ends of the smallest airways where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the blood.


Dilatation of bronchi. The noun form is ectasia.

A tiny tube in the air conduit system within the lungs that is a continuation of the bronchi and connects to the alveoli (the air sacs) where oxygen exchange occurs. Bronchiole is the diminutive of bronchus, from the word bronchos by which the Greeks referred to the conduits to the lungs.

An infection of the bronchioles, the tiny air tubes in the lungs.

An inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes, causing a persistent cough that produces considerable quantities of sputum (phlegm).

Bronchitis, chronic
Defined clinically as a daily cough with production of sputum for 3 months, two years in a row.

Broncho saline
Broncho saline is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): sodium chloride.

A group of drugs that widen the airways in the lungs.

Pertaining to both the air passages (bronchi) leading to the lungs and the lungs (pulmonary) themselves.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
A chronic lung disease of babies, which most commonly develops in the first 4 weeks after birth and most often affects babies born at least 4 weeks before term. The lungs do not work properly in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and the baby has trouble breathing, needs extra oxygen, and may need help from a ventilator (breathing machine).

Bronchopulmonary segments
A subdivision of one lobe of a lung based on the connection to the segmental bronchus. For example, the right upper lobe has apical, anterior, and posterior segments.

A thin, flexible instrument used to view the air passages of the lung.

A procedure that permits the doctor to see the breathing passages through a lighted tube.

Contraction of the muscle in the walls of the bronchi.

Bronchospasm, exercise-induced
Also called exercise-induced asthma, this is asthma that is triggered by vigorous physical activity. Exercise-induced asthma tends particularly to affect children and young adults (because of their high level of physical activity) but can occur at any age.

Any of the larger air passages that connect the trachea to the lungs.

Bronitin mist
Bronitin mist is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): epinephrine bitartrate.

Bronkaid mist
Bronkaid mist is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): epinephrine.

Bronkodyl is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): theophylline.

Bronkometer is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): isoetharine mesylate.

Bronkosol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): isoetharine hydrochloride.

Bronson Healthcare Group
Bronson Healthcare Group is a hospital in Kalamazoo, Michigan (USA).

An abnormal and persistent fear of thunder that causes undue anxiety even though sufferers realize that thunder itself poses no threat to them. When outdoors during a thunderstorm, they may suffer excessive anxiety. When indoors, they may hide under beds or desks, behind sofas, or in closets.

Bronze diabetes
A disorder of iron metabolism resulting in iron pigment deposits in the skin and other body tissues that causes a change in skin color.


A hormone derived from the pituitary that induces opiate-like responses to decrease pain. The release of its precursor hormone (B-lipotropin) requires cyclic AMP.

Basal Cell Carcinoma
The most common non-melanoma skin cancer. It begins in the lowest layer of the epidermis, called the basal cell layer. It usually develops on sun-exposed areas, especially the head and neck. Basal cell cancer is slow-growing and is not likely to spread to distant parts of the body. A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). More than 95% of these carcinomas occur in patients over 40. They develop on hairbearing skin, most commonly on sunexposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs.

Brain stem glioma
A tumor located in the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord (the brain stem). It may grow rapidly or slowly, depending on the grade of the tumor.

Brain tumor
A brain tumor is any mass created by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells either found in the brain (neurons, glial cells, epithelial cells, myelin producing cells, etc.) or spread from elsewhere (metastasis). Brain tumors are usually located in the posterior third of the brain in childhood and in the anterior two-thirds of the brain in adulthood.

Breast cancer
A malignant disease of breast tissue. Incidence increases with age and risk factors include a family history of breast cancer, late menopause, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Initial symptoms may include a small painless lump, thick or dimpled skin, or nipple retraction.


A muscular triangular-shaped, hollow organ located in the pelvic cavity and supported by the pelvic floor muscles. The bladder stretches to store urine and contracts to release urine.

Bipolar disorder
Also known as manic-depressive illness, a mental illness involving episodes of serious mania and depression. The person's mood usually swings from overly "high" and irritable to sad and hopeless and then back again, with periods of normal mood in between. Periods of abnormal mood and associated physiologic changes last for at least 2 weeks.

Behcet's Disease
A chronic condition which happens because of disturbances in the body’s immune system. This system, which normally protects the body against infections by producing controlled inflammation, becomes over-active and produces unpredictable out-breaks of unwanted and exaggerated inflammation. This extra inflammation affects blood vessels, usually the small ones. As a result symptoms occur wherever there is a patch of inflammation, and can be anywhere where there is a blood supply.

The orange-yellow pigment of bile, the green fluid that aids in digestion and that is secreted by the liver. Bilirubin is formed mainly by hemoglobin breakdown at the end of red cell life and eventually most of it leaves the body in the feces. Two types are in the blood. Water insoluble or unconjugated bilirubin refers to the pigment before it reaches the liver. In the liver it is converted to the water-soluble or conjugated bilirubin which is excreted into the bile.

Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

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