Bone, frontal
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  Bone, frontal



Bone, frontal

   See: Frontal bone.

RELATED TERMS
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Frontal
In anatomy, pertaining to the forehead. As, for example, the frontal bone, frontal sinus, and frontal nerve.

Bone
Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Bone
Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

Bone cancer
A malignancy in bone. Primary bone cancer, one that begins in bone, is uncommon but it is not unusual for a malignancy to spread to bone from other parts of the body such as from breast, lung, and prostate.

Bone cyst, aneurysmal
A benign lesion in a bone that contains connective tissue and blood inside a thin bony shell and that acts like a tumor and expands the bone. Aneurysmal bone cysts typically occur in the second decade of life and can affect any bone in the arms, legs, trunk or skull. Abbreviated ABC.

Bone cyst, simple
A solitary fluid-filled cyst (cavity) in a bone, usually in the shaft of a long bone, especially the humerus, in a child. The cyst can cause pain in or near it. Also called a unicameral bone cyst or solitary bone cyst.

Bone density
Measure of the mass of bone in relation to its volume to determine the risk of developing osteoporosis.

Bone marrow
The body's `factory' for three types of blood cells: leukocytes (white blood cells) which help fight infection; erythrocytes (red blood cells) which carry oxygen throughout the body; and thrombocytes (platelets) which cause blood clotting.

Bone marrow aspiration
The removal and examination of bone marrow cells.

Bone marrow biopsy
The removal of a sample of bone marrow and a small amount of bone (usually from the hip) through a large needle. Two samples are taken. The first is bone marrow by aspiration (suction with a syringe). The second sample is a core biopsy to obtain bone marrow together with bone fibers. After the needle is removed, this solid sample is pushed out of the needle with a wire. Both samples are examined under a microscope to see the cells and architecture of the bone marrow.

Bone marrow donor
A person who donates healthy bone marrow to a patient who has had high-dose cancer treatment. The patient is given the donor's healthy marrow during a bone marrow transplant.

Bone marrow harvest
A procedure to collect healthy bone marrow which will be stored and used in a future bone marrow transplant.

Bone marrow transplant
A procedure in which bone marrow that is diseased or damaged is replaced with healthy bone marrow. The bone marrow to be replaced may be deliberately destroyed by high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.

Bone marrow transplant (BMT)
A procedure to replace a patient's diseased or treatment-damaged bone marrow with healthy marrow. The new marrow can be marrow that has been previously removed from the patient and stored until needed (autologous transplant); or marrow that is donated either from a genetically matched relative or unrelated donor (allogeneic transplant) or from the patient's genetically identical twin (syngeneic transplant).

Bone marrow transplantation
See: Bone marrow transplant.

Bone mass density
A measure of bone density. Loss of bone mass is due to osteopenia or, if more severe, to osteoporosis.

Bone mineral density
BDM, a measure of bone density, reflecting the amount of calcium in bones. The BDM test detects osteopenia (bone loss usually without symptoms) and osteoporosis (more severe bone loss which may cause symptoms).

Bone morphogenetic protein
A member of a superfamily of proteins that promote the formation of bone and the skeleton and help mend broken bones.

Bone morphogenic protein 2
A protein that induces the formation of bone and cartilage. Bone morphogenic protein 2 (which is symbolized BMP2) belongs to a superfamily called transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). The gene for BMP2 is on chromosome 20 in band 20p12.3. Three sets of variations within the BMP2 gene reportedly triple the risk of developing osteoporosis.

Bone resorption
Decrease in bone supporting the roots of teeth; a common result of periodontal (gum disease.

Bone scan
A technique to create images of bones on a computer screen or on film. A small amount of radioactive material is injected and travels through the bloodstream. It collects in the bones, especially in abnormal areas of the bones, and is detected by special instrument called a scanner. The image of the bones is recorded on a special film for permanent viewing.

Bone scintigraphy
Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive and efficient method of measuring metabolic activity of the entire skeleton. Tc-99m labeled diphosphonates are well established in screening for most bony metastatic disease. Bone scanning makes up greater than 1/3 of the procedure volume in most nuclear medicine departments, a large proportion of which is screening for metastatic disease. The role of scintigraphy in evaluation of the patient with multiple myeloma is less well defined. Recent developments which necessitate reevaluation of the role of scintigraphy in multiple myeloma with respect to treatment.

Bone type
One of the four basic bone shapes in the human skeleton -- long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones.

Bone, ankle
The ankle bone is termed the talus. It is the bone of the foot that joins the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint. Plural tali.

Bone, blade
Familiar term for the scapula, also called the shoulder blade or wing bone, the flat triangular bone at the back of the shoulder.

Bone, breast
Familiar name for what is medically termed the sternum, the long flat bone in the middle of the front of the chest.

Bone, calf
"Familiar name for the fibula, the lateral (outside) and smaller of the two long bones in the lower leg. The other bone in the lower leg is the tibia. The tibia bears weight; the fibula does not. "

Bone, carpal
One of the wrist bones. There are eight carpal bones that are arranged in two rows.

Bone, coccygeal
The small tail-like bone at the bottom of the spine very near to the anus. The coccyx is made up of 3-5 rudimentary vertebrae. It is the lowest part of the spinal column.

Bone, collar
A horizontal bone above the first rib that makes up the front part of the shoulder.

Bone, cranial
Part of the top portion of the skull which protects the brain. The bones of the cranium include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.

Bone, cuboid
The cuboid bone is the outer bone in the instep of the foot. It is called the cuboid bone because it is shaped like a cube.

Bone, endochondral
Any bone that develops in and replaces cartilage.

Bone, ethmoid
See: Ethmoid bone.

Bone, giant cell tumor of
A tumor of bone characterized by massive destruction of the end (epiphysis) of a long bone. The site most commonly struck by this tumor is the knee -- the far end of the femur and the near end of the tibia. The tumor is often coated by new bony growth. It causes pain, restricts movement, and is usually cancerous. Treatment is by surgery, usually followed by chemotherapy.

Bone, heel
"A somewhat rectangular bone at the back of the foot. The words ""calcaneus"" and ""calcium"" are related. Medically termed the calcaneus. "

Bone, occipital
See: Occipital bone.

Bone, parietal
The main bone on the side of the skull.

Bone, sesamoid
See Sesamoid bone.

Bone, shin
The larger of the two bones in the lower leg (the smaller one being the fibula). The shin bone is anatomically known as the tibia.

Bone, sphenoid
"See; Sphenoid bone."

Bone, temporal
See: Temporal bone.

Bone, thigh
"The thigh bone in anatomy is called the ""femur."" Whichever term -- thigh bone or femur -- you care to use, it is the bone in the leg that extends from the hip to the knee. "

Bone, wing
Familiar term for the scapula, also called the shoulder blade or blade bone, the flat triangular bone at the back of the shoulder.

Bone, zygomatic
The bone that forms the prominence of the cheek.

Bones of the arm, wrist and hand
There are 64 bones in the upper extremity. They consist of 10 shoulder and arm, 16 wrist and 38 hand bones.

Bones of the head
There are 29 bones in the human head. They consist of 8 cranial bones, 14 facial bones, the hyoid bone, and 6 auditory (ear) bones.

Bones of the leg, ankle and foot
There are 62 lower extremity bones. They consist of 10 hip and leg, 14 ankle and 38 foot bones.

Bones of the skeleton
The human body has 206 bones. These consist of 80 axial (head and trunk) bones and 126 appendicular (upper and lower extremity) bones.

Bones of the trunk
The bones of the human trunk, 51 bones in all, consisting of 26 vertebrae, 24 ribs and the sternum. The 26 vertebrae comprise the 7 cervical, 12 thoracic and 5 lumbar vertebrae, the sacrum and the coccyx. The 24 ribs comprise 14 true ribs, 6 false ribs and 4 floating ribs. The sternum is the breast bone.

Bones, axial
There are 80 axial bones, comprised of 29 bones in the head and 51 bones in the trunk.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Bone, collar
A horizontal bone above the first rib that makes up the front part of the shoulder.

Bone, cranial
Part of the top portion of the skull which protects the brain. The bones of the cranium include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.

Bone, cuboid
The cuboid bone is the outer bone in the instep of the foot. It is called the cuboid bone because it is shaped like a cube.

Bone, endochondral
Any bone that develops in and replaces cartilage.

Bone, ethmoid
See: Ethmoid bone.

Bone, frontal

Bone, giant cell tumor of
A tumor of bone characterized by massive destruction of the end (epiphysis) of a long bone. The site most commonly struck by this tumor is the knee -- the far end of the femur and the near end of the tibia. The tumor is often coated by new bony growth. It causes pain, restricts movement, and is usually cancerous. Treatment is by surgery, usually followed by chemotherapy.

Bone, heel
"A somewhat rectangular bone at the back of the foot. The words ""calcaneus"" and ""calcium"" are related. Medically termed the calcaneus. "

Bone, occipital
See: Occipital bone.

Bone, parietal
The main bone on the side of the skull.

Bone, sesamoid
See Sesamoid bone.

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