Backbone
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  Backbone



Backbone

   The spine. A flexible row of bones stretching from the base of the skull to the tailbone.

RELATED TERMS
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Spine
A column in the body consisting of 33 vertebrae.

Base
A chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Bases and acids are referred to as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Arrhenius bases are water-soluble and always have a pH greater than 7 in solution.

Skull
The bony framework of the head.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Back Mountain Medical Center
The Back Mountain Medical Center is a hospital in Dallas, Pennsylvania, United States.

Back pain
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the trunk, including the thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or adjacent regions.

Back pain, low
Pain in the lower back area that can relate to problems with the lumbar spine, the discs between the vertebrae, the ligaments around the spine and discs, the spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, or the skin covering the lumbar area.

Background Retinopathy
Early stage of diabetic retinopathy; usually does not impair vision. Also called "nonproliferative retinopathy."



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Bacille Calmette Gu‚rin
An effective immunization against tuberculosis. Commonly abbreviated BCG, it is an attenuated (weakened) version of a bacterium called Mycobacterium bovis which is closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent responsible for tuberculosis.

Bacillophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of bacilli (bacteria). A phobia is an unreasonable sort of fear that can cause avoidance and panic. Phobias are a relatively common type of anxiety disorder. Phobias can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy using exposure and fear reduction techniques. In many cases, anti- anxiety or anti-depressant medication proves helpful, especially during the early stages of therapy. Another term for bacillophobia is bacteriaphobia.

Bacillus
A large family of bacteria that have a rod-like shape. They include the bacteria that cause food to spoil, and also those responsible for some types of diseases. Helpful members of the bacillus family are used to make antibiotics, or colonize the human intestinal tract and aid with digestion.

Bacillus anthracis
The bacterium that causes anthrax. Anthrax differs from most bacteria in that they exist in an inactive (dormant) state called spores. The spores are found in soil, animal carcasses and feces (including sheep, goats, cattle, bison, horses, and deer), and animal products (e.g., hides and wool). Some animals (cats, dogs, rats, and swine) are very resistant to anthrax. Remarkably, anthrax spores can remain dormant in soil for many years, perhaps decades. Likened somewhat to eggs that have the ability to hatch, spores can transform (germinate) into active bacteria under appropriate conditions.

Back pain, low
Pain in the lower back area that can relate to problems with the lumbar spine, the discs between the vertebrae, the ligaments around the spine and discs, the spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, or the skin covering the lumbar area.

Backbone

Bacteria
Single-celled microorganisms which can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent upon another organism for life).

Bacterial
Of or pertaining to bacteria. For example, a bacterial lung infection.

Bacterial prostatitis, acute
Inflammation of the prostate gland of sudden (acute) onset due to bacterial infection. The symptoms include chills, fever, pain in the lower back and genital area, body aches, burning or painful urination, and the frequent and urgent need to urinate. The urinary tract is infected, as evidenced by the presence of the white blood cells and bacteria in the urine. Treatment is with antibiotics. The prostate, a small organ about the size of a walnut, is below the bladder (where urine is stored) and surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder). The prostate normally produces a fluid that becomes part of the semen.

Bacterial prostatitis, chronic
Longstanding bacterial infection of the prostate gland superimposed on a defect in the prostate. (The prostate is a small organ below the bladder which surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine down from the bladder.) The symptoms can include low back pain, discomfort in the perineum (the area between the anus and the genitalia), testicular pain and, if the infection spreads to the bladder, mild pain or burning on urination (dysuria) and frequent and urgent need to urinate (frequency and urgency). The presence of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine attests to the fact that the urinary tract is infected with bacteria. The defect in the prostate is the focal point for the persistent infection. Effective treatment requires identification and correction of this defect before antibiotics can be effective.

Bacteriaphobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of germs. Sufferers from bacteriaphobia experience undue anxiety even though they realize that most germs are not pathogens (disease-causing germs). To avoid germs, they may repeat cleaning rituals, such as washing their hands or face. (Surgeons may do well to have a mild degree of bacteriaphobia.)

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