Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody
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  Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody



Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody

   See: Citrulline antibody.

RELATED TERMS
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Citrulline
A non-standard amino acid that is not normally present in protein. Citrulline is created in the body as an intermediate in the conversion of the amino acid ornithine to arginine in a metabolic pathway called the urea cycle.

Antibody
An infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms (eg, bacteria, viruses) or toxins. Antibodies, known generally as immunoglobulins, are made and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens. Each specific antibody binds only to the specific antigen that stimulated its production.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Anti aging clinic
A clinic or hospital specialized in anti aging treatments.

Anti CCP
See: Citrulline antibody.

Anti-
"Prefix generally meaning ""against, opposite or opposing, and contrary."" In medicine, anti- often connotes ""counteracting or effective against"" as in antibacterial, anti-infective, and antiviral. Sometimes medical terms containing anti- take on new meanings as has occurred with antibiotic and antibody. As a prefix, anti- may be shortened to ant- as in antacid."

Anti-angiogenesis drugs
These drugs, which include angiostatin and Endostatin, halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Angiostatin is a piece of a larger and very common protein, plasminogen, that the body uses in blood clotting. Endostatin is a piece of a different protein, collagen 18, that is in all blood vessels. Both angiostatin and Endostatin are normally secreted by tumors. It is hoped that they will provide the basis for a new class of agents to treat cancer.

Anti-CCP
See: Citrulline antibody.

Anti-citrulline antibody
See: Citrulline antibody.

Anti-emetic
See: Antiemetic.

Anti-infective
Something capable of acting against infection, by inhibiting the spread of an infectious agent or by killing the infectious agent outright. Anti-infective is a general term that encompasses antibacterials, antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoans and antivirals.

Anti-inflammatory drugs
Drugs that reduce the symptoms and signs of inflammation.

Anti-La
Autoantibody - marker for Sjogren's syndrome and other connective tissue disorders but not specific. Also known as anti-SSB.

Anti-platelet agents
Medications that, like aspirin, reduce the tendency of platelets in the blood to clump and clot.

Anti-reflux surgery (fundoplication)
A surgical technique that strengthens the barrier to acid reflux when the lower esophageal sphincter does not work normally and there is gastro-esophageal reflux.

Anti-RNP
Autoantibody to Ribonucleoprotein - a marker for a variant of SLE often referred to as Mixed Connective Tissue Disease.

Anti-Ro
Autoantibody - marker for Sjogren's syndrome and other connective tissue disorders but not specific. Also known as anti-SSA.

Anti-SCL70
Autoantibody marker for diffuse systemic sclerosis.

Antiandrogen
a hormone or other substance that replaces androgen within the nuclei of target cells, or excludes its entry. It inhibits the secretion of testosterone from the testis and is itself either biologically inert or functionally very weak.

Antiarrhythmic
A drug that is used to treat abnormal heart rhythms.

Antiatherogenic mutation
A genetic mutation that protects against atherogenesis, the formation of atheromas (plaques) in arteries. Antiatherogenic mutations include CETP deficiency (cholesterol ester transfer protein deficiency) and familial hypobetalipoproteinemia.

Antibacterial
Anything that destroys bacteria or suppresses their growth or their ability to reproduce. Heat, chemicals such as chlorine, and antibiotic drugs all have antibacterial properties. Many antibacterial products for cleaning and handwashing are sold today. Such products do not reduce the risk for symptoms of viral infectious diseases in otherwise healthy persons. This does not preclude the potential contribution of antibacterial products to reducing symptoms of bacterial diseases in the home.

Antibiotic
A drug that stops or slows the growth of bacteria

Antibiotic resistance
The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to withstand an antibiotic to which they were once sensitive (and were once stalled or killed outright). Also called drug resistance.

Antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis
See: Tuberculosis, antibiotic-resistant.

Antibodies
Proteins produced by white blood cells. They confer immunity.

Antibody
An infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms (eg, bacteria, viruses) or toxins. Antibodies, known generally as immunoglobulins, are made and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens. Each specific antibody binds only to the specific antigen that stimulated its production.

Antibody cross reactivity
The ability of an antibody to react with similar antigenic sites on different proteins.

Antibody, antithyroglobulin
An antibody directed against thyroglobulin which is a key protein in the thyroid gland essential to the production of thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine). Antithyroglobulin antibodies can damage the thyroid gland and affect its function. Testing for antithyroglobulin antibodies in the blood is useful in the diagnosis of some thyroid and other disorders. Conditions in which there may be antithyroglobulin antibodies include: Hashimoto thyroiditis (an autoimmune thyroid disease), Graves disease (overactivity of the thyroid), hypothyroidism (underactivity of the thyroid), thyroid cancer, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Sjogren syndrome. Antithyroglobulin antibodies are also called antithyroid antibodies.

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
A phenomenon in which target cells, coated with antibody, are destroyed by specialized killer cells (NK cells and macrophages), which bear receptors for the Fc portion of the coating antibody (Fc receptors). These receptors allow the killer cells to bind to the anti-body-coated target.

Anticardiolipin antibody
Autoantibody to component of cell membrane. May occur in connective tissue disease such as SLE or independently. May give rise to Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (Hughes' syndrome) - livedo reticularis, thrombocytopenia, arterial and venous thromboses and recurrent spontaneous abortion.

Anticholinergic
The action of certain medications that inhibit the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses and thereby reduce spasms of smooth muscle (such as that, for example, in the bladder).

Anticholinergics
Anti-Parkinson drugs that block the action of acetylcholine, thereby rebalancing it in relation to dopamine and reducing rigidity and tremor; e.g., Artane, Cogentin.

Anticipation
A remarkable phenomenon in which a genetic disease appears earlier appearance and with increased from with each succeeding generation. Anticipation was once thought not to exist in genetics. It was chalked off as a meaningless statistical artifact. However, anticipation has now been proven to occur in a large number of important genetic disorders, including Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. In molecular terms, anticipation is due to the expansion of a trinucleotide repeat sequence in the DNA. This phenomenon also occurs in the fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation.

Anticipatory grief
The normal mourning that occurs when a patient or family is expecting a death. Anticipatory grief has many of the same symptoms as those experienced after a death has occurred. It includes all of the thinking, feeling, cultural, and social reactions to an expected death that are felt by the patient and family.

Anticoagulant
A medication that keeps blood from clotting.

Anticoagulant ("blood thinner")
A medication that prevents blood from clotting; used for people at risk for stroke or blood clots.

Anticoagulant agent
"A medication used as a ""blood-thinner"" to prevent the formation of blood clots and to maintain open blood vessels. Anticoagulants have various uses. Some are used for the prophylaxis (prevention) or the treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Thrombi are clots. Emboli are clots that break free, travel through the bloodstream, and lodge therein."

Anticonvulsant
A medication used to control (prevent) seizures (convulsions) or stop an ongoing series of seizures. There are a large number of anticonvulsant drugs today including, but not limited to: phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), carbamazepine, ethosuximide (Zarontin), clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and midazolam (Versed). Anticonvulsant drugs taken during pregnancy put the baby at risk of major birth defects -- growth retardation, microcephaly (a small head) and deformities of the face and fingers -- a condition known as anticonvulsant embryopathy.

Antidepressant
A term typically used to describe medications that are used in the treatment of depression. Such medications are sometimes found useful in the treatment of anxiety and panic disorders, but tend to still be called antidepressants because doctors originally used them to treat depression before realizing the medications could treat anxiety as well. In other words, taking an antidepressant does not necessarily imply that a person is depressed. Medications such as Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SRIs) and Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) are often called antidepressants, yet are commonly used to treat anxiety as well.

Antidepressant, MAOI
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), one of a potent class of medications used to treat depression.

Antidepressant, SSRI
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), one of the commonly prescribed drugs for treating depression.

Antidepressant, tricyclic
"One of a class of medications used to treat depression. The tricyclic antidepressants are also used for some forms of anxiety, fibromyalgia, and the control of chronic pain. ""Tricyclic"" refers to the presence of three rings in the chemical structure of these drugs."

Antidiabetic agent
A substance that helps a person with diabetes control their level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Antidiabetic agents include insulin and the oral hypoglycemic agents.

Antidiabetic Agent
A substance that helps a person with diabetes control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood so that the body works as it should.

Antidiarrheals
Medicines that help control diarrhea.

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ADH acts on the kidneys, concentrating the urine by promoting the reabsorption of water from the cortical collecting duct.

Antidote
An agent used to counteract a poison.

Antielastase
An agent that counteracts a poison and neutralizes its effects. A chemical antidote is a substance that unites with a poison to form a harmless chemical compound. A mechanical antidote is a substance that prevents the absorption of a poison from the intestine into the body.

Antiemetic
1. As a noun, a drug taken to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting. As, for example, the antihistamine meclizine hydrochloride (Bonine). 2. As an adjective, pertaining to the prevention or treatment of nausea and vomiting. Opening a window in a car can have an antiemetic effect.

Antiemetics
Medicines that prevent and control nausea and vomiting.

Antiestrogen
A substance that can prevent the full expression of estrogen. Antiestrogens act by exerting antagonistic effects on target tissues (androgens and progestogens act in this way) or by competing with estrogens for access to receptor sites located on the cell surface.

Antifreeze poisoning
Poisoning from antifreeze which today is usually ethylene glycol -- a clear, colorless, odorless liquid with a sweet taste -- that can produce dramatic and dangerous toxicity. Ethylene glycol is found most commonly in automotive cooling systems, and hydraulic brake fluid. In an industrial setting it is also used as a solvent and in a variety of processes.

Antifungal
A drug used to treat fungal infections.

Antifungal agent
A drug used to treat fungal infections.

Antifungal drug
A drug used to treat fungal infections.

Antifungal medication
A drug used to treat fungal infections.

Antigen
A substance which, when present in animal tissue, stimulates the production of antibodies

Antigen processing
Large molecules are broken down (processed) within macrophages into peptides and presented within the groove of MHC molecules.

Antigen receptor
The specific antigen-binding receptor on T or B lymphocytes; these receptors are transcribed and translated from rearrangements of V genes.

Antigen, prostate specific
See: PSA.

Antigen-antibody complex
The complex formed by the binding of an antibody and an antigen. Antigen-antibody complexes are mediators of immune responses. Also known as an immune complex.

Antigen-binding site
The part of an immunoglobulin molecule that binds antigen specifically.

Antigen-presenting cell
"A cell that can ""present"" antigen in a form that T cells can recognize it. The cells that can ""present"" antigen include B cells and cells of the monocyte lineage (including macrophages)."

Antigenic determinant
A single antigenic site or epitope on a complex antigenic molecule or particle.

Antigenic drift
A mechanism for variation by viruses that involves the accumulation of mutations within the antibody-binding sites so that the resulting viruses cannot be inhibited well by antibodies against previous strains making it easier for them to spread throughout a partially immune population. Antigenic drift occurs in both influenza A and influenza B viruses.

Antigenic shift
A sudden shift in the antigenicity of a virus resulting from the recombination of the genomes of two viral strains. Antigenic shift is seen only with influenza A viruses. It results usually from the replacement of the hemagglutinin (the viral attachment protein that also mediates the entry of the virus into the cell) with a novel subtype that has not been present in human influenzaviruses for a long time. The source of these new genes is the large reservoir of influenzaviruses in waterfowl. The consequences of the introduction of a new hemagglutinin into human viruses is usually a pandemic, or a worldwide epidemic.

Antigens
Substances that cause an immune response in the body. The body "sees" the antigens as harmful or foreign. To fight them, the body produces antibodies, which attack and try to eliminate the antigens.

Antihistamine drugs
A group of drugs that block the effects of histamine, a chemical released in body fluids during an allergic reaction.

Antihistamines
"Drugs that combat the histamine released during an allergic reaction by blocking the action of the histamine on the tissue. Antihistamines do not stop the formation of histamine nor do they stop the conflict between the IgE and antigen. Therefore, antihistamines do not stop the allergic reaction but protect tissues from some of its effects. Antihistamines frequently cause mouth dryness and sleepiness. Newer ""non sedating"" antihistamines are generally thought to be somewhat less effective. Antihistamine side effects that very occasionally occur include urine retention in males and fast heart rate."

Antihypertensive
A medication or other therapy that lowers blood pressure.

Antihypertensive Drug
A drug that reduces hypertension (high blood pressure).

Antiinfective
Something capable of acting against infection, by inhibiting the spread of an infectious agent or by killing the infectious agent outright. Anti-infective is a general term that encompasses antibacterials, antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoans and antivirals.

Antikeratin antibody
Autoantibody detected using rat oesophagus as substrate in laboratory. Presence in human serum is a reasonable specific marker for rheumatoid arthritis but is not very sensitive.

Antimalarial
"A drug directed against malaria. The original antimalarial agent was quinine which took its name from the Peruvian Indian word ""kina"" meaning ""bark of the tree."" A large and complex molecule, quinine is the most important alkaloid found in cinchona bark. Until World War I, it was the only effective treatment for malaria. In fact, quinine was the first chemical compound to be successfully used to treat an infectious disease. "

Antimetabolite
A drug that is similar enough to a natural chemical to participate in a normal biochemical reaction in cells but different enough to interfere with the normal division and functions of cells. So named because the drug inhibits a normal metabolic process. Examples of antimetabolites include 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), methotrexate, and hydroxyurea.

Antimicrobial
"A drug used to treat a microbial infection. ""Antimicrobial"" is a general term that refers to a group of drugs that includes antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antivirals."

Antimicrobial agent
A general term for drugs, chemicals, or other substances that either kill or slow the growth of microbes. Among the antimicrobial agents are antibacterial drugs, antiviral agents, antifungal agents, and antiparisitic drugs.

Antimicrobial drug
"A drug used to treat a microbial infection. ""Antimicrobial"" is a general term that refers to a group of drugs that includes antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antivirals."

Antimicrobial medication
"A drug used to treat a microbial infection. The term ""antimicrobial"" is a general one that refers to a group of drugs that includes antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antivirals."

Antimicrobial resistance
The result of microbes changing in ways that reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents to cure or prevent infections.

Antimitochondrial antibody
Autoantibody found predominantly in patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome.

Antimony
A silvery-white earth metal which at high levels can be toxic. Antimony occurs naturally in the earth. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. Antimony breaks easily, but when mixed into alloys, it is used in lead storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipe metal, bearings, castings, and pewter. Antimony oxide is added to textiles and plastics to prevent them from catching fire and is also used in paints (especially enamels), ceramics, and fireworks.

Antineoplastic
Acting to prevent, inhibit or halt the development of a neoplasm (a tumor). An agent with antineoplastic properties. For example, oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) is an antineoplastic used in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer.

Antinuclear antibody test
A test for unusual antibodies that are directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) indicate the possible presence of autoimmunity.

Antioxidant
Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons and thus modifying chemical structures.

Antioxidants
Compounds that protect against cell damage inflicted by molecules called oxygen-free radicals, which are a major cause of disease and aging.

Antiparallel
A term applied to two molecules that are side by side but run in opposite directions. The two strands of DNA are antiparallel. The head of one strand is always laid against the tail of the other strand of DNA.

Antiparasitic
Effective in the treatment of parasites. For example, nitazoxanide (Alinis) is an antiparasitic medication used to treat diarrhea due to the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
An immune disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal antibodies in the blood associated with abnormal blood clotting, migraine headaches, recurrent pregnancy losses (repeat spontaneous abortions), and low blood platelet counts (thrombocytopenia).

Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)
A disorder of coagulation, and causes thrombosis in both arteries and veins, as well as recurrent miscarriage. It is due to the autoimmune production of antibodies against cell membrane constituents.

Antiplatelet Medication
A medication, such as aspirin or plavix, used to prevent platelets from clumping together to cause clots to form. Used for people at risk for stroke or blood clots.

Antipodean doctor
A doctor who, being or not a citizen of that country, has been admitted to practice medicine in Australia or New Zealand.

Antiprotozoal
"Something that destroys protozoa or inhibits their growth and ability to reproduce. A few of the protozoa of medical importance include Plasmodium (the cause of malaria); Entamoeba histolytica (the cause of amebiasis, amebic dysentery) and Trichomonas vaginalis (a cause of vaginal infection); and Pneumocystis carinii (a common cause of pneumonia in immunodeficient persons). Some antiprotozoal drugs include the antimalarials Aralen (chloroquine), Daraprim (pyrimethamine), Lariam (mefloquine) and Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine); Flagyl (metronidazole) which is active against Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis; and Mepron (atovaquone) for Pneumocystis carinii. "

Antiprotozoal drug
"Something that destroys protozoa or inhibits their growth and ability to reproduce. A few of the protozoa of medical importance include Plasmodium (the cause of malaria); Entamoeba histolytica (the cause of amebiasis, amebic dysentery) and Trichomonas vaginalis (a cause of vaginal infection); and Pneumocystis carinii (a common cause of pneumonia [PCP] in immunodeficient persons). Some antiprotozoal drugs include the antimalarials Aralen (chloroquine), Daraprim (pyrimethamine), Lariam (mefloquine) and Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine); Flagyl (metronidazole) which is active against Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis; and Mepron (atovaquone) for Pneumocystis carinii."

Antipsoriatic
Directed against psoriasis. Sunlight is antipsoriatic, as are a number of drugs.

Antipsychotic
A medication (or another measure) that is believed to be effective in the treatment of psychosis. For example, aripiprazole (Abilify) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia.

Antipyretic
Something that reduces fever or quells it.

Antiretroviral
An agent or process effective against a retrovirus. For example, a drug to treat HIV.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART)
"Treatment that suppresses or stops a retrovirus. One of the retrovirus is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. Retroviruses are so named because they carry their genetic information in the form of RNA rather than DNA so that the information must be transcribed in ""reverse"" direction -- from RNA into DNA."

Antisense
In molecular biology, the strand complementary to a coding sequence of a nucleic acid. Antisense DNA is the non-coding strand complementary to the coding strand in double-stranded DNA. The antisense strand serves as the template for messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis.Antisense RNA is the non-coding strand complementary to a coding sequence of mRNA, a molecule involved in translating genetic instructions into proteins. Antisense RNA hybridizes with and inactivates mRNA. Antisense drugs are based on the fact that antisense RNA hybridizes with and inactivates mRNA. These drugs are short sequences of RNA that attach to mRNA and stop a particular gene from producing the protein for which it holds the recipe. Antisense drugs are being developed to treat lung cancer, diabetes and diseases such as arthritis and asthma with a major inflammatory component.

Antisense DNA
In double-stranded DNA, only one strand codes for the RNA that is translated into protein. The strand that does not do so is called the antisense strand. Another way of defining antisense DNA is that it is the strand of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to make proteins. DNA normally has two strands -- the sense strand and the antisense strand. Although these strands are exact mirror images of one another, only the sense strand contains the information for making proteins. The antisense strand does not. Antisense DNA is also known as noncoding DNA.

Antisense drug
"A medication containing part of the non-coding strand of messenger RNA (mRNA), a key molecule involved in the translation of DNA into protein. Antisense drugs hybridize with and inactivate mRNA. This stops a particular gene from producing the protein for which it holds the recipe. Antisense drugs have been developed or are ""in the pipeline"" to treat eye disease in AIDS, lung cancer, diabetes and diseases such as arthritis and asthma with a major inflammatory component."

Antisense mRNA
An mRNA (messenger RNA) transcript that is complementary to endogenous mRNA. Antisense mRNA is the noncoding strand complementary to the coding sequence of mRNA. Introducing a transgene coding for antisense mRNA is a strategy used to block expression of a gene of interest.

Antisense-strand RNA virus
See: Negative-strand RNA virus.

Antisepsis
Prevention of infection by inhibiting or arresting the growth and multiplication of germs (infectious agents). Antisepsis implies scrupulously clean and free of all living microorganisms.

Antiseptic
Something that discourages the growth microorganisms. By contrast, aseptic refers to the absence of microorganisms.

Antiserum
A serum that contains antibodies. Serum from a person or animal with immunity to a certain disease can, in some cases, be used to prevent illness in other people.

Antisocial personality
See: Antisocial personality disorder.

Antisocial personality disorder
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others and inability or unwillingness to conform to what are considered to be the norms of society.

Antispasmodic
1) A medication that lowers the incidence of or prevents seizures. 2) A medication that lowers the incidence of or prevents muscle spasms.

Antispasmodics
Medicines that help reduce or stop muscle spasms in the intestines.

Antithymocyte globulin
An immunosuppressive agent that selectively destroys T lymphocytes. Antithymocyte globulin is the gamma globulin fraction of antiserum from animals that have been immunized against human thymocytes. It is a polyclonal antibody. The uses of this drug include the prevention and treatment of transplant rejection, aplastic anemia, and other conditions in which immunosuppression may be indicated. Pretreatment with this drug quashes rogue T cells in the DiGeorge syndrome and permits a successful thymus transplant.

Antithyroglobulin
An antibody directed against thyroglobulin which is a key protein in the thyroid gland essential to the production of thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine). Antithyroglobulin antibodies can damage the thyroid gland and affect its function.

Antithyroid antibody
An antibody directed against the thyroid gland, a gland which produces thyroid hormones (such as, for example, thyroxine and triiodothyronine). Antithyroid antibodies can be associated with inflammation of the thyroid gland and affect its function. Antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies are examples of antithyroid antibodies.

Antithyroid drug
A drug directed against the thyroid gland. The antithyroid drugs include carbimazole, methimazole, and propylthiouracil (PTU). These drugs are used to treat hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland) in order to reduce the excessive thyroid activity before surgery and to treat and maintain patients not having surgery.

Antitoxin
An antibody to a toxin.

Antitussive
Antitussive is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): diphenhydramine hydrochloride.

Antivenin
Antibodies created in the blood of a horse or sheep when the animal is injected with snake venom. Antivenin acts by neutralizing snake venom that has entered the body. Also called antivenom, snake antivenin, or snake antivenom.

Antivert
Antivert is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): meclizine hydrochloride.

Antiviral
An agent that kills a virus or that suppresses its ability to replicate and, hence, inhibits its capability to multiply and reproduce.

Antiviral agent
An agent that kills viruses or suppresses their replication and, hence, inhibits their capability to multiply and reproduce.

Antizol
Antizol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): fomepizole.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
--------------------------------------

Anti CCP
See: Citrulline antibody.

Anti-
"Prefix generally meaning ""against, opposite or opposing, and contrary."" In medicine, anti- often connotes ""counteracting or effective against"" as in antibacterial, anti-infective, and antiviral. Sometimes medical terms containing anti- take on new meanings as has occurred with antibiotic and antibody. As a prefix, anti- may be shortened to ant- as in antacid."

Anti-angiogenesis drugs
These drugs, which include angiostatin and Endostatin, halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Angiostatin is a piece of a larger and very common protein, plasminogen, that the body uses in blood clotting. Endostatin is a piece of a different protein, collagen 18, that is in all blood vessels. Both angiostatin and Endostatin are normally secreted by tumors. It is hoped that they will provide the basis for a new class of agents to treat cancer.

Anti-CCP
See: Citrulline antibody.

Anti-citrulline antibody
See: Citrulline antibody.

Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody

Anti-emetic
See: Antiemetic.

Anti-infective
Something capable of acting against infection, by inhibiting the spread of an infectious agent or by killing the infectious agent outright. Anti-infective is a general term that encompasses antibacterials, antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoans and antivirals.

Anti-platelet agents
Medications that, like aspirin, reduce the tendency of platelets in the blood to clump and clot.

Anti-reflux surgery (fundoplication)
A surgical technique that strengthens the barrier to acid reflux when the lower esophageal sphincter does not work normally and there is gastro-esophageal reflux.

Antiatherogenic mutation
A genetic mutation that protects against atherogenesis, the formation of atheromas (plaques) in arteries. Antiatherogenic mutations include CETP deficiency (cholesterol ester transfer protein deficiency) and familial hypobetalipoproteinemia.

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peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinaed peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatd peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinate peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatedpeptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated eptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated petide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pepide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptde antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptie antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptid antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptideantibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide ntibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide atibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antbody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antiody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibdy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antiboy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibod / aanti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / annti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / antti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / antii-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti--cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-ccyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cycclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cycllic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cycliic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclicc citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic ccitrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic ciitrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cittrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citruullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrulllinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrulllinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrulliinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinnated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinaated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatted peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinateed peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatedd peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated ppeptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peeptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pepptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pepttide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptiide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptidde antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptidee antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide aantibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anntibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anttibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antiibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibbody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antiboody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antiboddy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodyy / qnti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / wnti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / snti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / xnti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / znti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / abti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / ahti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / ajti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / amti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / a ti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / an5i-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / an6i-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anyi-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anhi-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / angi-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anfi-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anri-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / an4i-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / ant-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti=cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti[cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / antipcyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti0cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-xyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-syclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-dyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-fyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-vyclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti- yclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-c6clic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-c7clic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cuclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cjclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-chclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cgclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-ctclic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-c5clic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyxlic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyslic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cydlic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyflic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyvlic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cy lic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cycoic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cycpic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyc;ic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyc.ic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyc,ic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyckic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyciic citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclc citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclix citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclis citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclid citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclif citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cycliv citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cycli citrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic xitrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic sitrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic ditrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic fitrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic vitrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic itrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic ctrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic ci5rullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic ci6rullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic ciyrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cihrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cigrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cifrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cirrullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic ci4rullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cit4ullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cit5ullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cittullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citgullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citfullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citdullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citeullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic cit3ullinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citr7llinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citr8llinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrillinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrkllinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrjllinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrhllinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citryllinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citr6llinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citruolinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citruplinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citru;linated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citru.linated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citru,linated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citruklinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citruilinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citruloinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrulpinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrul;inated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrul.inated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrul,inated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrulkinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citruliinated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullnated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullibated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullihated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullijated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullimated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrulli ated peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinqted peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinwted peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinsted peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinxted peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinzted peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullina5ed peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullina6ed peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinayed peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinahed peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinaged peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinafed peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinared peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullina4ed peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinat3d peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinat4d peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatrd peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatfd peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatdd peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatsd peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatwd peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatee peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinater peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatef peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatev peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatec peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatex peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinates peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinatew peptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated 0eptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated -eptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated [eptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated ;eptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated leptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated oeptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated 9eptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated p3ptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated p4ptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated prptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pfptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pdptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated psptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pwptide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pe0tide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pe-tide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pe[tide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pe;tide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peltide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peotide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pe9tide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pep5ide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pep6ide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pepyide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pephide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pepgide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pepfide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pepride antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated pep4ide antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptde antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptiee antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptire antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptife antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptive antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptice antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptixe antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptise antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptiwe antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptid3 antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptid4 antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptidr antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptidf antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptidd antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptids antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptidw antibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide qntibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide wntibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide sntibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide xntibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide zntibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide abtibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide ahtibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide ajtibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide amtibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide a tibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide an5ibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide an6ibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anyibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anhibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide angibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anfibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anribody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide an4ibody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antbody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antivody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antifody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antigody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antihody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antinody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anti ody / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antib9dy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antib0dy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibpdy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibldy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibkdy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibidy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antib8dy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antiboey / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibory / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibofy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibovy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibocy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antiboxy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibosy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibowy / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibod6 / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibod7 / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodu / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodj / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodh / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodg / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodt / anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibod5 /