Anthrax toxin
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  Anthrax toxin



Anthrax toxin

   The toxic substance secreted by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the disease anthrax.

RELATED TERMS
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Toxic
Poisonous.

Bacterium
The singular of bacteria.

Bacillus
A large family of bacteria that have a rod-like shape. They include the bacteria that cause food to spoil, and also those responsible for some types of diseases. Helpful members of the bacillus family are used to make antibiotics, or colonize the human intestinal tract and aid with digestion.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Anthophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of flowers. Sufferers experience anxiety even though they realize they face no threat from flowers. Any genus or species of flowers can instill fear, as can any flower part, such as a petal or stem.

Anthracycline
"A member of a family of chemotherapy drugs that are also antibiotics. The anthracyclines act to prevent cell division by disrupting the structure of the DNA and terminate its function. They do so in two ways: (1) they intercalate into the base pairs in the DNA minor grooves; and (2) they cause free radical damage of the ribose in the DNA. The anthracyclines are frequently used in leukemia therapy. The anthracyclines include daunorubicin (Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex), epirubicin (Ellence, Pharmorubicin), and idarubicin (Idamycin)."

Anthrax immunization
A series of six shots over six months and booster shots annually.

Anthropology, forensic
See: Forensic anthropology.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Anteroposterior
From front to back. When a chest x-ray is taken with the back against the film plate and the x-ray machine in front of the patient it is called an anteroposterior (AP) view. As opposed to from back to front (which is called posteroanterior).

Anteroposterior (AP)
In anatomy, AP stands for anteroposterior: from front-to-back. For example, an AP X-ray of the chest is taken from front-to-back. AP in this respect is the opposite of PA, which stands for posteroanterior: from back-to-front.

Anthophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of flowers. Sufferers experience anxiety even though they realize they face no threat from flowers. Any genus or species of flowers can instill fear, as can any flower part, such as a petal or stem.

Anthracycline
"A member of a family of chemotherapy drugs that are also antibiotics. The anthracyclines act to prevent cell division by disrupting the structure of the DNA and terminate its function. They do so in two ways: (1) they intercalate into the base pairs in the DNA minor grooves; and (2) they cause free radical damage of the ribose in the DNA. The anthracyclines are frequently used in leukemia therapy. The anthracyclines include daunorubicin (Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex), epirubicin (Ellence, Pharmorubicin), and idarubicin (Idamycin)."

Anthrax immunization
A series of six shots over six months and booster shots annually.

Anthrax toxin

Anthropology, forensic
See: Forensic anthropology.

Anti CCP
See: Citrulline antibody.

Anti-
"Prefix generally meaning ""against, opposite or opposing, and contrary."" In medicine, anti- often connotes ""counteracting or effective against"" as in antibacterial, anti-infective, and antiviral. Sometimes medical terms containing anti- take on new meanings as has occurred with antibiotic and antibody. As a prefix, anti- may be shortened to ant- as in antacid."

Anti-angiogenesis drugs
These drugs, which include angiostatin and Endostatin, halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Angiostatin is a piece of a larger and very common protein, plasminogen, that the body uses in blood clotting. Endostatin is a piece of a different protein, collagen 18, that is in all blood vessels. Both angiostatin and Endostatin are normally secreted by tumors. It is hoped that they will provide the basis for a new class of agents to treat cancer.

Anti-CCP
See: Citrulline antibody.

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