Anthracycline
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  Anthracycline



Anthracycline

   "A member of a family of chemotherapy drugs that are also antibiotics. The anthracyclines act to prevent cell division by disrupting the structure of the DNA and terminate its function. They do so in two ways: (1) they intercalate into the base pairs in the DNA minor grooves; and (2) they cause free radical damage of the ribose in the DNA. The anthracyclines are frequently used in leukemia therapy. The anthracyclines include daunorubicin (Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex), epirubicin (Ellence, Pharmorubicin), and idarubicin (Idamycin)."

RELATED TERMS
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Family
1. A group of individuals related by blood or marriage or by a feeling of closeness. 2. A biological classification of related plants or animals that is a division below the order and above the genus. 3. A group of genes related in structure and in function that descended from an ancestral gene. 4. A group of gene products similarly related in structure and function and of shared genetic descent. 5. Parents and their children. The most fundamental social group in humans.

Chemotherapy
The use of chemicals (medicines) to treat cancer.

Drugs
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.

Cell
Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

Base
A chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Bases and acids are referred to as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Arrhenius bases are water-soluble and always have a pH greater than 7 in solution.

DNA
Deoxyribo-Nucleic acid. DNA molecules carry the genetic information necessary for the organization and functioning of most living cells and control the inheritance of characteristics.

Leukemia
Cancer of white blood cells. Acute leukemias are characterized by the presence of "blasts," which are immature white blood cells. Large quantities of blasts generally overgrow the bone marrow, leaving very little space for normal bone marrow cells. This type generally requires immediate treatment. Chronic leukemias are those characterized by a large and uncontrolled growth of more mature white blood cells. These types of leukemias tend not to progress as rapidly, and treatment is often milder than that of acute leukemias.

Daunorubicin
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of leukemias and other neoplasms.

Doxorubicin
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetics. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN and is used in treatment of both leukemia and solid tumors.

Idarubicin
An orally administered anthracycline antibiotic. The compound has shown activity against breast cancer, lymphomas and leukemias, together with potential for reduced cardiac toxicity.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Anthophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of flowers. Sufferers experience anxiety even though they realize they face no threat from flowers. Any genus or species of flowers can instill fear, as can any flower part, such as a petal or stem.

Anthrax immunization
A series of six shots over six months and booster shots annually.

Anthrax toxin
The toxic substance secreted by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the disease anthrax.

Anthropology, forensic
See: Forensic anthropology.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Anterograde amnesia
See: Antegrade amnesia.

Anterograde memory
Loss of short-term memory with retention of memories from the distant past (long-term memory).

Anteroposterior
From front to back. When a chest x-ray is taken with the back against the film plate and the x-ray machine in front of the patient it is called an anteroposterior (AP) view. As opposed to from back to front (which is called posteroanterior).

Anteroposterior (AP)
In anatomy, AP stands for anteroposterior: from front-to-back. For example, an AP X-ray of the chest is taken from front-to-back. AP in this respect is the opposite of PA, which stands for posteroanterior: from back-to-front.

Anthophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of flowers. Sufferers experience anxiety even though they realize they face no threat from flowers. Any genus or species of flowers can instill fear, as can any flower part, such as a petal or stem.

Anthracycline

Anthrax immunization
A series of six shots over six months and booster shots annually.

Anthrax toxin
The toxic substance secreted by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the disease anthrax.

Anthropology, forensic
See: Forensic anthropology.

Anti CCP
See: Citrulline antibody.

Anti-
"Prefix generally meaning ""against, opposite or opposing, and contrary."" In medicine, anti- often connotes ""counteracting or effective against"" as in antibacterial, anti-infective, and antiviral. Sometimes medical terms containing anti- take on new meanings as has occurred with antibiotic and antibody. As a prefix, anti- may be shortened to ant- as in antacid."

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