Anterior position
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  Anterior position

Anterior position

    When the baby faces the back of the mother's pelvis in utero and/or during labor.


The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.

A basin-shaped structure that supports the spinal column and contains the sacrum, coccyx, and hip bones (ilium, pubis, and ischium).

The process of childbirth, in which the rhythmic contractions of the uterine muscles open the cervix and allow a baby to be born.


Ante mortem
Before death.

Exceptionally strong or large. A multi-vitamin pill may, for example, be of Antean proportions.

Forward-moving. As in blood flow. Sometimes synonymous with anterograde.

Antegrade amnesia
Amnesia in which the loss of memory relates to events that occur after a traumatic event. There is inability to recall new information. Old information can be recalled. Antegrade amnesia may follow brain trauma. Also called anterograde amnesia. This type of amnesia is in contrast to retrograde amnesia in which the lack of memory relates to events that occurred before a traumatic event.

Antelope Valley Hospital Medical Center
Antelope Valley Hospital Medical Center is a hospital in Lancaster, California (USA).

Antenatal surgery
The surgical treatment of the fetus before birth. Also called prenatal surgery or, most often, fetal surgery.

Antepar is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): piperazine citrate.

Occurring before delivery of a baby.

The front, as opposed to the posterior. The anterior surface of the heart is toward the breast bone (the sternum).

Anterior chamber
"The space in the eye that is behind the cornea and in front of the iris. The cornea is the outer, transparent, dome-like structure that covers the iris, pupil, and the anterior chamber. The iris is the colored ring of tissue suspended behind the cornea and immediately in front of the lens; it regulates the amount of light entering the eye by adjusting the size of the pupil. The anterior chamber is filled with a watery fluid known as the aqueous humor, or aqueous. Produced by a structure alongside the lens called the ciliary body, the aqueous passes first into the posterior chamber (between the lens and iris) and then flows forward through the pupil into the anterior chamber of the eye."

Anterior cruciate injury
A knee injury involving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The ACL runs diagonally across the front of the knee from the underside of the femur (the thigh bone) to the top of the tibia (the bigger bone in the lower leg).

Anterior cruciate ligament
ligament in the knee that crosses from the underside of the femur (the thigh bone) to the top of the tibia (the bigger bone in the lower leg). Abbreviated ACL. Injuries to the ACL can occur in a number of situations, including sports, and can be quite serious, requiring surgery.

Anterior pituitary
The front portion of the pituitary, a small gland in the head called the master gland. Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary influence growth, sexual development, skin pigmentation, thyroid function, and adrenocortical function. These influences are exerted through the effects of pituitary hormones on other endocrine glands except for growth hormone which acts directly on cells. The effects of underfunction of the anterior pituitary include growth retardation (dwarfism) in childhood and a decrease in all other endocrine gland functions normally under the control of the anterior pituitary (except the parathyroid glands). The results of overfunction of the anterior pituitary include overgrowth (gigantism) in children and a condition called acromegaly in adults.

Anterior teeth
The six upper or six lower front teeth.

Anterior tongue
The front two-thirds of the tongue. In contrast to the base of the tongue, which is the back third. The distinction between the anterior and base of the tongue reflects the fact that they are of different embryological origin. The distinction also matters as regards cancer. See: Tongue cancer.

Prefix signifying before, earlier, front. From the Latin anterior meaning before.

Moving forward or extending forward. Anterograde memory is memory for what occurs after an event such as an accident. Also called antegrade. From the Latin antero- + gredior (to step or go).

Anterograde amnesia
See: Antegrade amnesia.

Anterograde memory
Loss of short-term memory with retention of memories from the distant past (long-term memory).

From front to back. When a chest x-ray is taken with the back against the film plate and the x-ray machine in front of the patient it is called an anteroposterior (AP) view. As opposed to from back to front (which is called posteroanterior).

Anteroposterior (AP)
In anatomy, AP stands for anteroposterior: from front-to-back. For example, an AP X-ray of the chest is taken from front-to-back. AP in this respect is the opposite of PA, which stands for posteroanterior: from back-to-front.


Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)
Fertility treatments or procedures that involve laboratory handling of gametes (eggs and sperm) or embryos. Examples of ARTs include in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Autoimmune disease
Or autoimmune disorder. A category of diseases and disorders in which one's own cells are mistakenly identified as "foreign" by the body and are therefore attacked by the immune system, causing tissue damage.

Autoimmune disorder
Or autoimmune disease. A category of diseases and disorders in which one's own cells are mistakenly identified as "foreign" by the body and are therefore attacked by the immune system, causing tissue damage.

A common term for the placenta after it has been delivered.

A rare birth defect resulting in little or no brain and a malformed skull.

Anterior position

Apgar score
The first test most babies are given (at one and five minutes after birth). Assesses five basic indicators of health: respiration, pulse, activity level, response to stimulation, and appearance.

Au pair
A foreign national who lives with an American family for up to a year, and in exchange for room, board, and a small stipend, helps with childcare and housework. She may or may not have any previous experience caring for children, unlike nannies, who usually do.

Absorption spectrum
The relationship between the wavelength of light striking a pigment and how strongly the light is absorbed.

Accessory oculomotor nucleus
Receives input from the pretectal area, innervates the ciliary ganglion. Mediates pupillary light reflexes.

Accessory optic system (AOS)
Region of the vertebrate midbrain to which some optic nerve fibers project. Cells respond to large slowly moving textured patterns and are selective for both direction and speed of motion suggesting they are involved in the computation of global motion. Possibly used for the detection of retinal slip and used in image stabilization. Consists of two sets of retina ganglion cell fibers and three target nuclei in the anterior portion of the midbrain, the dorsal, medial and lateral nuclei.

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