Annulus fibrosis
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  Annulus fibrosis

Annulus fibrosis

    Tough outer layer of intervertebral disc.


Shortened terminology for an intervertebral disc, a disk-shaped piece of specialized tissue that separates the bones of the spinal column.


Annular pancreas
"An abnormal ring of pancreas that encircles the duodenum and often causes intestinal obstruction. Nausea and vomiting are the usual symptoms and reflect the intestinal obstruction. Complete obstruction is usually evident in the newborn period. Partial obstruction may not present until later in childhood or adulthood. Diagnostic tests include upper GI series, abdominal CT scan, and endoscopy. The treatment is surgical. Complications include peptic ulcer disease and perforation of the intestine. ""Annular"" is the adjective for ""annulus"" (a little ring)."

A ring of tough fibrous tissue which is attached to and supports the leaflets of the heart valve.


Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody. Found as cANCA or pANCA. The former is found in Wegener's granulomatosis whereas the latter is more non-specific.

Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Fabry's disease. X-linked recessive inheritance. Caused by accumulation of triglycosylceramide in blood vessels and autonomic nervous system.

Ankylosing hyperostosis
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. (DISH, Forestier's disease). Florid new bone formation at entheses results in spinal stiffness. May be confused with ankylosing spondylitis.

Aneurysmal bone cyst
A rare bone tumour which usually occurs in the teens and often in the spine. Locally destructive.

Fusion - may be bony as in Ankylosing spondylitis.

Annulus fibrosis

Anserine bursa
Bursa lying medial to the knee.

Antalgic gait
Gait in which patient reduces weight-bearing on painful joint or limb. (Pain-avoiding gait).

Proteins produced by white blood cells. They confer immunity.

Anticardiolipin antibody
Autoantibody to component of cell membrane. May occur in connective tissue disease such as SLE or independently. May give rise to Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (Hughes' syndrome) - livedo reticularis, thrombocytopenia, arterial and venous thromboses and recurrent spontaneous abortion.

Antikeratin antibody
Autoantibody detected using rat oesophagus as substrate in laboratory. Presence in human serum is a reasonable specific marker for rheumatoid arthritis but is not very sensitive.

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