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   A ring of tough fibrous tissue which is attached to and supports the leaflets of the heart valve.


Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function.The study of tissues is known as histology, or, in connection with disease, histopathology.The classical tools for studying the tissues are the wax block, the tissue stain, and the optical microscope, though developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and frozen sections have all added to the sum of knowledge in the last couple of decades.

Thin pieces of tissue or flaps that make up a valve.

The hollow, muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system.

A fold in the lining of an organ that prevents fluid from flowing backward.


Annular pancreas
"An abnormal ring of pancreas that encircles the duodenum and often causes intestinal obstruction. Nausea and vomiting are the usual symptoms and reflect the intestinal obstruction. Complete obstruction is usually evident in the newborn period. Partial obstruction may not present until later in childhood or adulthood. Diagnostic tests include upper GI series, abdominal CT scan, and endoscopy. The treatment is surgical. Complications include peptic ulcer disease and perforation of the intestine. ""Annular"" is the adjective for ""annulus"" (a little ring)."

Annulus fibrosis
Tough outer layer of intervertebral disc.


A rare autoimmune disorder characterized by the buildup of abnormal protein in tissues. Amyloidosis can be a cause of heart valve disorders and heart failure.

Angina (also called angina pectoris)
Discomfort or pressure, usually in the chest, caused by a temporarily inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. Discomfort may also be felt in the neck, jaw or arms. A common symptom of coronary artery disease, angina usually occurs during periods of physical or emotional stress and is relieved by rest.

Angiotension-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)
A group of drugs used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. ACE inhibitors block a specific enzyme (ACE or angiotensin-converting enzyme) which retains salt in the kidney and can cause heart and blood pressure problems.

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
A class of medicines used to treat high blood pressure.

Ankle Transmetatarsal and Toe Tracings
A procedure used to test the arterial blood flow to the hands and feet.


Anomalous Coronary Artery
The normal anatomy for the coronary arteries involves their origin from the aorta at each of two separate sites. Sometimes people can be born with the origin of a coronary artery that comes from an abnormal site and this can lead to problems of coronary ischemia which can subsequently lead to heart attack. Not all coronary anomalies need surgery, but some do and the specific operation depends on which of the many varieties of coronary anomalies is present.

A drug that is used to treat abnormal heart rhythms.

Anticoagulant ("blood thinner")
A medication that prevents blood from clotting; used for people at risk for stroke or blood clots.

Antihypertensive Drug
A drug that reduces hypertension (high blood pressure).

Antiplatelet Medication
A medication, such as aspirin or plavix, used to prevent platelets from clumping together to cause clots to form. Used for people at risk for stroke or blood clots.

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