Annexins
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  Annexins



Annexins

   The annexins are a family of proteins first described in 1990. All of the annexin proteins share the property of binding calcium and phospholipids. The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is due to a deficiency of annexin V. Annexin V normally forms a shield around certain phospholipid molecules that blocks their entry into coagulation (clotting) reactions. In the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, the formation of this shield is disrupted by the abnormal antibodies. Without the shield, there is an increased quantity of phospholipid molecules on cell membranes, speeding up coagulation reactions and causing the abnormal blood clotting characteristic of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. See also: Annexin A1.

RELATED TERMS
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Annexins
The annexins are a family of proteins first described in 1990. All of the annexin proteins share the property of binding calcium and phospholipids. The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is due to a deficiency of annexin V. Annexin V normally forms a shield around certain phospholipid molecules that blocks their entry into coagulation (clotting) reactions. In the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, the formation of this shield is disrupted by the abnormal antibodies. Without the shield, there is an increased quantity of phospholipid molecules on cell membranes, speeding up coagulation reactions and causing the abnormal blood clotting characteristic of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. See also: Annexin A1.

Family
1. A group of individuals related by blood or marriage or by a feeling of closeness. 2. A biological classification of related plants or animals that is a division below the order and above the genus. 3. A group of genes related in structure and in function that descended from an ancestral gene. 4. A group of gene products similarly related in structure and function and of shared genetic descent. 5. Parents and their children. The most fundamental social group in humans.

Calcium
Chemical element needed for healthy teeth, bones and nerves

Antibody
An infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms (eg, bacteria, viruses) or toxins. Antibodies, known generally as immunoglobulins, are made and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens. Each specific antibody binds only to the specific antigen that stimulated its production.

Syndrome
A grouping of signs and symptoms, based on their frequent co-occurrence, that may suggest a common underlying pathogenesis, course, familial pattern, or treatment selection.

Forms
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the developing, maintaining, and handling of forms and records.

Coagulation
In medicine, the clotting of blood. The process by which the blood clots to form solid masses, or clots.

Abnormal
Not normal. Deviating from the usual structure, position, condition, or behavior. In referring to a growth, abnormal may mean that it is cancerous or premalignant (likely to become cancer).

Antibodies
Proteins produced by white blood cells. They confer immunity.

Cell
Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

Membranes
Also know as the bag of waters, this thin sac contains the amniotic fluid and the fetus. The membranes will either rupture spontaneously during labor or be ruptured to speed up labor.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Clotting
The sealing of a blood vessel with coagulated blood.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Anne Arundel Medical Center
Anne Arundel Medical Center is a hospital in Annapolis, Maryland (USA).

Annexin A1
One of the annexins, a family of proteins that share the property of binding calcium and phospholipids. The gene for annexin A1 (ANXA1) is upregulated in hairy cell leukemia. ANXA1 protein expression is specific to hairy cell leukemia. Detection of ANXA1 (by immunocytochemical means) reportedly provides a simple, highly sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

Annexin V
Annexin V is the cause of a syndrome called the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with abnormal blood clotting.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Anlagen
The plural of anlage. See: Anlage.

ANLL
Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, More commonly called acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A quickly progressive malignant disease in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow, the cells being specifically those destined to give rise to the granulocytes or monocytes, both types of white blood cells that fight infections. In AML, these blasts do not mature and so become too numerous. AML can occur in adults or children.

Annals of Internal Medicine
"A medical journal especially concerned with information in the field of internal medicine (adult medicine). Designed to be read largely by internists, the Annals states it is ""is the leading journal for studies in internal medicine."

Annexin A1
One of the annexins, a family of proteins that share the property of binding calcium and phospholipids. The gene for annexin A1 (ANXA1) is upregulated in hairy cell leukemia. ANXA1 protein expression is specific to hairy cell leukemia. Detection of ANXA1 (by immunocytochemical means) reportedly provides a simple, highly sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

Annexin V
Annexin V is the cause of a syndrome called the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with abnormal blood clotting.

Annexins

Annotate
In genetics, to identify the locations and the coding regions of genes in a genome and determine what those genes do. To annotate (irrespective of the context) is to add a note by way of explanation or commentary. Once a genome is sequenced, it needs to be annotated to make sense of it.

Annotation
In genetics, the process of identifying the locations and coding regions of genes in a genome and determining what those genes do. To annotate (irrespective of the context) is to add a note by way of explanation or commentary. Once a genome is sequenced, it needs to be annotated to make sense of it.

Annotation, genome
The process of identifying the locations and the coding regions of genes in a genome and determining what those genes do. An annotation (irrespective of the context) is a note added by way of explanation or commentary. Once a genome is sequenced, it needs to be annotated to make sense of it.

Annular pancreas
"An abnormal ring of pancreas that encircles the duodenum and often causes intestinal obstruction. Nausea and vomiting are the usual symptoms and reflect the intestinal obstruction. Complete obstruction is usually evident in the newborn period. Partial obstruction may not present until later in childhood or adulthood. Diagnostic tests include upper GI series, abdominal CT scan, and endoscopy. The treatment is surgical. Complications include peptic ulcer disease and perforation of the intestine. ""Annular"" is the adjective for ""annulus"" (a little ring)."

Anomalad, Klippel-Feil
See: Klippel-Feil sequence.

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