Affect
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  Affect



Affect

    This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

RELATED TERMS
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Feeling
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.

Affect
This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

Fear
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.

Anger
An emotional state that may range in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage. Anger has physical effects including raising the heart rate and blood pressure and the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline.

Cultures
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.

Culture
Growth of cells, tissues or embryos in vitro on an artificial nutrient medium in the laboratory.

Euthymic
Mood in the "normal" range, which implies the absence of depressed or elevated mood.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Affective disorder, seasonal (SAD)
Depression that tends to occur (and recur) as the days grow shorter in the fall and winter. It is believed that affected persons react adversely to the decreasing amounts of light and the colder temperatures as the fall and winter progress. Seasonal affective disorder has not been recognized very long as a medical condition. The term first appeared in print in 1985. Seasonal affective disorder is also sometimes called winter depression or the hibernation reaction.

Affective disorders
Refers to disorders of mood. Examples would include Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, Depressive Disorder, N.O.S., Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Bipolar Disorder...

Affective Disorders
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

Affective Disorders, Seasonal
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.

Affective Psychoses
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.

Affective Psychosis, Bipolar
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.

Affective Symptoms
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.

Affects
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.

Afferent
Heading towards. A system's afferent signals are those entering the system from elsewhere. (As opposed to Efferent)

Afferent Loop Syndromes
A complication of gastrojejunostomy, caused by acute or chronic obstruction of the afferent loop due to hernia, intussusception, kinking, volvulus, etc. It is characterized by pain and vomiting of bile-stained fluid and includes acute afferent loop obstruction.

Afferent nerve
A nerve that carries impulses toward the central nervous system (CNS). The opposite of an afferent nerve is an efferent nerve that carries impulses away from the CNS.

Afferent Neurons
Neurons which convey sensory information centrally from the periphery.

Afferent Pathways
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.

Afferent vessel
A vessel that carries blood toward the heart. A vein or venule.

Afferents, Visceral
The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Acculturation difficulty
A problem stemming from an inability to appropriately adapt to a different culture or environment. The problem is not based on any coexisting mental disorder.

Acting out
This is the process of expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings via actions rather than words. The person is not consciously aware of the meaning or etiology of such acts. Acting out may be harmful or, in controlled situations, therapeutic (e.g., children's play therapy).

Actualization
The realization of one's full potential - intellectual, psychological, physical, etc.

Adiadochokinesia
The inability to perform rapid alternating movements of one or more of the extremities. This task is sometimes requested by physicians of patients during physical examinations to determine if there exists neurological problems.

Adrenergic
This refers to neuronal or neurologic activity caused by neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

Affect

Affective disorders
Refers to disorders of mood. Examples would include Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, Depressive Disorder, N.O.S., Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Bipolar Disorder...

Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI)
The mild disturbance in memory function that occurs normally with aging; benign senescent forgetfulness. Such lapses in memory are lately humorously referred to as representing "a senior moment".

Agnosia
Failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function; This may be seen in dementia of various types. An example would be the failure of someone to recognize a paper clip placed in their hand while keeping their eyes closed.

Agonist medication
A chemical entity that is not naturally occuring within the body which acts upon a receptor and is capable of producing the maximal effect that can be produced by stimulating that receptor. A partial agonist is capable only of producing less than the maximal effect even when given in a concentration sufficient to bind with all available receptors.

Agonist-antagonist medication
A chemical entity that is not naturally occuring within the body which acts on a family of receptors (such as mu, delta, and kappa opiate receptors) in such a fashion that it is an agonist or partial agonist on one type of receptor while at the same time it is also an antagonist on another different receptor.

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