Acid Antagonists, Folic
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  Acid Antagonists, Folic



Acid Antagonists, Folic

   Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)

RELATED TERMS
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Enzyme
A cellular protein whose shape allows it to hold together several other molecules in close proximity to each other. In this way, enzymes are able to induce chemical reactions in other substances with little expenditure of energy and without being changed themselves. Basically, an enzyme acts as a catalyst.

Cancer
Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.

Chemotherapy
The use of chemicals (medicines) to treat cancer.

Evaluations
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Acid Activations, Amino
The first step of protein synthesis, whereby an amino acid reacts with adenosine triphosphate in the presence of aminoacyl RNA synthetase to produce an amino acid adenylate, which provides the energy necessary for the attachment of the amino acid to a specific transfer RNA molecule.

Acid Agents, gamma-Aminobutyric
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Acid Agonists, gamma-Aminobutyric
Drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).

Acid Amino Acid Ligases
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of an acid and an amino acid by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.2.

Acid Ammonia Ligases
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.

Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.

Acid Antagonists, gamma-Aminobutyric
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID or GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID agonists.

Acid Aspiration Syndromes
A type of pneumonia resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper respiratory tract.

Acid Base Equilibrium
The balance between acids and bases in the blood plasma. Normally it results in a slightly alkaline state with an excess of hydroxyl ions in comparison to hydrogen. The balance is achieved by the offset of the ingestion and production of acidic and basic material by the amount of acidic and basic material metabolized and excreted by the body.

Acid Base Imbalance
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.

Acid beta Glucosidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Acid beta-Glycerophosphatase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.

Acid Bisdimethylamide, Diazodicarboxylic
A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.

Acid Carboxy-Lyase, 2-Oxo
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.

Acid Ceramidase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a ceramidetrihexoside to a ceramidedihexoside plus galactose. EC 3.2.1.47.

Acid Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Acid Decarboxylase, Glutamic
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.

Acid Deficiency, Folic
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

Acid Dehydratase, delta-Aminolevulinic
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC 4.2.1.24.

Acid Denaturations, Nucleic
Disorganization of secondary structures of nucleic acids through cleavage of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic linkages. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.

Acid deposition
A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere and then deposited on earth in either wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called acid rain, can fall to earth as rain, snow, or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates.

Acid Diethylamide, Lysergic
Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.

Acid DNase
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.

Acid Esters, Phosphoric
Organic esters of phosphoric acid.

Acid Etching, Dental
Pretreatment of tooth surfaces with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to increase the adhesion of various resin systems.

Acid Heteroduplexes, Nucleic
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.

Acid Hybridizations, Nucleic
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503; Dorlands, 28th ed, p781)

Acid Hydrase, 9,10-Epoxypalmitic
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively. EC 3.3.2.3.

Acid Hydrazide, Maleic
1,2-Dihydro-3,6-pyridazinedione. A herbicide and plant growth regulator; also used to control suckering of tobacco. Its residue in food and tobacco is highly toxic, causing CNS disturbances and liver damage.

Acid Hydroperoxides, Fatty
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.

Acid indigestion
Excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach cells. Medically known as hyperchlorhydria. Sometimes used interchangeably with heartburn. See also: Heartburn.

Acid Isomerases, Amino
Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.

Acid Lipase B
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.

Acid Maltase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4. EC 3.2.1.3.

Acid Maltase Deficiency Disease
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Acid Modulators, gamma-Aminobutyric
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which benzodiazepines act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which barbiturates act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. General anesthetics probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.

Acid Oxidoreductases, Amino
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids. EC 1.4.-.

Acid phosphatase
Acid phosphatase is an enzyme that works under acid conditions and is made in the liver, spleen, bone marrow and the prostate gland. Abnormally high serum levels of the enzyme may, for example, indicate prostate disease (infection, injury, or cancer).

Acid Phosphate Fluoride
A sodium fluoride solution, paste or powder, which has been acidulated to pH 3 to 4 and buffered with a phosphate. It is used in the prevention of dental caries.

Acid Polyester, Glycolic-Lactic
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.

Acid Polymers, Methacrylic
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.

Acid Precursors, Nucleic
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.

Acid Probes, Nucleic
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.

Acid Proteases
A sub-subclass of ENDOPEPTIDASES that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity. EC 3.4.23.

Acid rain
Rain resulting from the combination of fossil fuel emissions and water in the atmosphere. The environmental effects of acid rain include the acidification of lakes and streams, damage to trees at high altitude, the acceleration of decay in buildings and poorer air quality. Acid rain also poses serious human health risks by contributing to heart and lung disorders such as asthma and bronchitis. Acid rain can be reduced by the regulation of industrial emissions and the adoption of energy efficiency alternatives and pollution prevention programs. Acid rain is a form of acid deposition.

Acid Rains
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.

Acid Reductase, Folic
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.

Acid reflux
A common condition and an abnormal one in which acid in the stomach rises up into the esophagus. This occurs because the valve separating the contents of the stomach from the esophagus does not function properly. See also: GERD.

Acid Renaturations, Nucleic
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.

Acid Ribonuclease
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.

Acid Synthetase, delta-Aminolevulinic
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyl phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis and, in liver at least, is feedback inhibited by heme. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.3.1.37.

Acid Tests, Formiminoglutamic
A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.

Acid Thiol Ligases
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.

Acid Thiol Proteinase
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 3.4.22.

Acid Transporters, Monocarboxylic
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.

Acid, 1-Aminocyclopentanecarboxylic
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.

Acid, 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)

Acid, 2 Aminoadipic
A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).

Acid, 2,3-Diketogulonic
Metabolite of ASCORBIC ACID and the oxidized form of the lactone DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.

Acid, 2-Aminoethylphosphonic
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.

Acid, 2-Thiolpropionamidoacetic
Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of glycine used in treatment of liver diseases, as a detoxicant and in therapy of myopia.

Acid, 3-Caffeoylquinic
A naturally occuring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).

Acid, 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric
An antilipemic agent which lowers cholesterol, triglycerides, serum beta-lipoproteins and phospholipids. It acts by interfering with the enzymatic steps involved in the conversion of acetate to hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A as well as inhibiting the activity of HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES which is the rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.

Acid, 3-Hydroxyanthranilic
An oxidation product of trytophan metabolism. It may be a free radical scavenger and a carcinogen.

Acid, 3-Mercaptopropionic
An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.

Acid, 3-Nitro-4-Hydroxyphenylarsonic
An arsenic derivative which has anticoccidial action and promotes growth in animals.

Acid, 3-Pyridinecarboxylic
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.

Acid, 4-Aminobenzenearsonic
An arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals.

Acid, 4-Aminohippuric
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.

Acid, 4-Chloromercuribenzoic
An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.

Acid, 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic
A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).

Acid, 5-Butyl-2-pyridinedicarboxylic
A picolinic acid derivative isolated from various Fusarium species. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic applications but is primarily used as a research tool. Its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. It probably inhibits DOPAMINE BETA-HYDROXYLASE, the enzyme that converts dopamine to norepinephrine. It may also have other actions, including the inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis.

Acid, 5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic
A keto derivative of proline. Elevated levels of pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid are often associated with problems of glutamine or glutathione metabolism. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Acid, 5alpha-Isomer Deoxycholic
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.

Acid, 6-Aminohexanoic
An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.

Acid, 9,12-Octadecadienoic
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Acid, 9-Octadecenoic
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Acid, 99mTc-Diethyliminodiacetic
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.

Acid, 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the diagnostic imaging of the renal cortex.

Acid, all-trans-Retinoic
An important regulator of gene expression, particularly during growth and development and in neoplasms. Retinoic acid derived from maternal vitamin A is essential for normal gene expression during embryonic development and either a deficiency or an excess can be teratogenic. It is also a topical dermatologic agent which is used in the treatment of psoriasis, acne vulgaris, and several other skin diseases. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia.

Acid, alpha-Lipoic
A vitamin-like antioxidant that acts as a free-radical scavenger.

Acid, Amidotrizoic
A versatile x-ray contrast medium for diagnostic radiology. It can be administered by most routes.

Acid, amino
One of the 20 building blocks of protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and, hence, the function of that protein are determined by the genetic code in the DNA. Amino acids are molecules that (in technical terms) contain a basic amino (NH2) group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side chain attached to an alpha carbon atom. The 20 amino acids are alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine.

Acid, Aminoacetic
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Acid, Aminobutyric
Aliphatic four carbon acids substituted in any position(s) with amino group(s). They are found in most living things. The best known is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.

Acid, Aminocaproic
A group of compounds that are derivatives of aminohexanoic acids.

Acid, Aminolevulinic
A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis.

Acid, Aminooxoacetic
Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.

Acid, Aminooxyacetic
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.

Acid, Aminopropylaminoethylthiophosphoric
A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.

Acid, Aminosalicylic
A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.

Acid, Amoxycillin-Clavulanic
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate (see AMOXICILLIN), an aminopenicillin, and potassium clavulanate (see CLAVULANIC ACID), a beta-lactamase inhibitor, used to treat a broad-spectrum of bacterial infections, especially resistant strains.

Acid, Antimony Gluconic
Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.

Acid, Apurinic
Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.

Acid, Argininosuccinic
This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.

Acid, Ascorbic
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.

Acid, Aspartic
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.

Acid, Atractylic
A highly toxic glycoside isolated from Atractylis gummifera and other thistles. It inhibits mitochondrial translocase. Its inhibitory action blocks oxidative phosphorylation of adenosine nucleotides through mitochondrial membranes.

Acid, Aureolic
A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.

Acid, Aurin Tricarboxylic
A dye which inhibits protein biosynthesis at the initial stages. The ammonium salt (aluminon) is a reagent for the colorimetric estimation of aluminum in water, foods, and tissues.

Acid, Azetidinecarboxylic
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.

Acid, Azolinic
Synthetic antimicrobial related to oxolinic and nalidixic acids and used in urinary tract infections.

Acid, Benzoaric
A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.

Acid, Benzoic
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.

Acid, Butyric
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.

Acid, Cacodylic
An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.

Acid, Canrenoic
A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.

Acid, Carbolic
An antiseptic and disinfectant. It is active against a wide range of micro-organisms including some fungi and viruses, but is only slowly effective against spores. It has been used to disinfect skin and to relieve itching. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p801)

Acid, Catechuic
A antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.

Acid, Chenodeoxycholic
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.

Acid, Chloromercuribenzene-p-sulphonic
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.

Acid, Cholic
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.

Acid, Chrysotropic
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.

Acid, Citric
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.

Acid, Clodronic
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.

Acid, Clofibrinic
An antilipemic agent and the biologically active metabolite of CLOFIBRATE.

Acid, Dehydroascorbic
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.

Acid, Deoxyursocholic
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Acid, Dichloroacetic
A derivative of acetic acid which increases the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and rate of lipogenesis. It is used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and medicine.

Acid, Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic
An iron chelating agent with properties similar to those of the edetates. (From Dorland, 28th ed) DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.

Acid, Digenic
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.

Acid, Dihomogammalinolenic
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.

Acid, Dithionitrobenzoic
A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.

Acid, Edetic
A chelating agent (CHELATING AGENTS) that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.

Acid, Egtazic
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID (EDTA).

Acid, Ethacrynic
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracelluar fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.

Acid, Etodolic
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with potent analgesic and antiarthritic properties. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of OSTEOARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, ankylosing SPONDYLITIS, and in the alleviation of postoperative pain (PAIN, POSTOPERATIVE).

Acid, Excitatory Amino
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.

Acid, fatty
"One of many molecules that are long chains of lipid-carboxylic acid found in fats and oils and in cell membranes as a component of phospholipids and glycolipids. (Carboxylic acid is an organic acid containing the functional group -COOH.) Fatty acids come from animal and vegetable fats and oils. Fatty acids play roles outside the body; they are used as lubricants, in cooking and food engineering, and in the production of soaps, detergents, and cosmetics. Related terms include the following: Essential fatty acid: An essential fatty acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid needed by the body that is synthesized by plants but not by the human body and is therefore a dietary requirement. Free fatty acids: By-products of the metabolism of fat in adipose tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids: Omega-3 fatty acids are a class of fatty acids found in fish oils, especially in salmon and other cold-water fish, that lowers the levels of cholesterol and LDL (low-density lipoproteins) in the blood. (LDL cholesterol is the ""bad"" cholesterol.) Trans fatty acid:Trans fatty acids (trans fats) are made through hydrogenation to solidify liquid oils. They increase the shelf life of oils and are found in vegetable shortenings and in some margarines, crackers, cookies, and snack foods. Intake of trans fatty acids increases blood LDL-cholesterol (""bad"" cholesterol) levels and raises the risk of coronary heart disease."

Acid, Flufenamic
An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)

Acid, Fluorhydric
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.

Acid, Folic
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.

Acid, Folinic
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as its calcium salt as an antidote to folic acid antagonists which block the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid.

Acid, Formiminoglutamic
Measurement of this acid in the urine after oral administration of histidine provides the basis for the diagnostic test of folic acid deficiency and of megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy.

Acid, Fusidic
An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.

Acid, Gadopentetic
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)

Acid, Gallic
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.

Acid, Gallotannic
A lustrous powder, yellow to light-brown in color, that is found in tree bark (particularly oak), fruits, leaves, and tea. It is used medicinally as an astringent, commercially in tanning hides, and as a dye mordant. (Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984). It is also used as a histological fixative and stain.

Acid, gamma-Vinyl-gamma-Aminobutyric
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)

Acid, Gastric Hydrochloric
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.

Acid, Glucosaccharic
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.

Acid, Glycerol Teichoic
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.

Acid, Glycochenodeoxycholic
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.

Acid, Glycocholic
A bile salt that is usually used as the sodium salt. It is the glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Acid, Glycodeoxycholic
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Acid, Glycyrrhetinic
3-beta-Hydroxy-11-oxoolean-12-en-30-oic acid. A product from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Leguminosae with some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.

Acid, Glycyrrhizinic
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to glycyrrhetic acid, which inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Acid, Glyoxalinylacrylic
4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.

Acid, Hexadecanoic
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.

Acid, Hexadienoic
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.

Acid, Hydrobromic
Hydrobromic acid (HBr). A solution of hydrogen bromide gas in water.

Acid, Hydrochloric
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.

Acid, Hydrochloride gamma-Aminobutyric
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Acid, Hydrocyanic
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.

Acid, Hydroxamic
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.

Acid, Hydroxyethylsulfonic
A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.

Acid, Ibotenic
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.

Acid, Iduronic
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.

Acid, Iodoacetic
Iodoacetic acid and its salts and derivatives. Iodoacetic acid reacts with cysteine (-SH) groups to form a carboxymethylated protein and is used as an enzyme inhibitor in biochemical research.

Acid, Iodogorgoic
A product from the iodination of MONOIODOTYROSINE. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, diiodotyrosine residues are coupled with other monoiodotyrosine or diiodotyrosine residues to form T4 or T3 thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE).

Acid, Iodohippuric
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal funtion.

Acid, Ioglycamic
A radiopaque medium. It is a mixture of its meglumine and sodium salts and is used to visualize the biliary tract.

Acid, Iopanoic
Radiopaque medium used as diagnostic aid.

Acid, Iothalamic
A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.

Acid, Isolithocholic
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.

Acid, Isonicotinic
Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).

Acid, Ketoglutaric
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)

Acid, Kynurenic
A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.

Acid, Lactic
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Acid, Meclofenamic
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Acid, Mefenaminic
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase.

Acid, Mersalyl
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.

Acid, Methylmalonic
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.

Acid, Muramic
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Acid, N-Acetylneuraminic
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)

Acid, N-Methyl-D-aspartic
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).

Acid, Nafenoic
A peroxisome proliferator that is used experimentally to promote liver tumors. It has been used as an antihyperlipoproteinemic agent.

Acid, Nalidixic
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA gyrase.

Acid, Niflumic
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Acid, Nitric
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Acid, Nitrous
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Acid, nucleic
"One of the molecules in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that plays a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. The two chief types of nucleic acids are:

Acid, Ocadaic
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)

Acid, Oleanolic
Occurs in leaves of Olea europaea, Viscum album L., and other higher plants. It is also the aglycone component of many saponins.

Acid, omega-3-Eicosapentaenoic
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.

Acid, Osmic
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.

Acid, Oxalic
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.

Acid, Oxolinic
Synthetic antimicrobial related to NALIDIXIC ACID and used in urinary tract infections.

Acid, Oxonic
Antagonist of urate oxidase.

Acid, p-Butoxyphenylacethydroxamic
An anti-inflammatory analgesic with antipyretic action. It is administered topically, orally, or rectally.

Acid, pantothenic
Pantothenic acid is vitamin B5, one of the less well known B vitamins, perhaps because it is widely distributed in nature. Pantothenic acid is virtually ubiquitous. It is present in foods as diverse as poultry, soybeans, yogurt, and sweet potatoes. No naturally occurring disease due to a deficiency of pantothenic acid has been identified, due to the plentifulness of this vitamin. An experimental deficiency of pantothenic acid has, however, been created by administering an antagonist to pantothenic acid. This experiment produced disease, thereby demonstrating that pantothenic acid is essential to humans. Pantothenic acid was discovered in 1940.

Acid, Paraperiodic
A strong oxidizing agent.

Acid, Penicillanic
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Acid, Penicillic
A mycotoxin with antibiotic and carcinogenic activity produced by various strains of Penicillium, by Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus melleus. Has been found in tobacco, sausages, and corn.

Acid, Perchloric
An oxidizing agent that is used in analytical chemistry for separation of potassium from sodium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Acid, Peroxynitrous
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).

Acid, Phenylethylbarbituric
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.

Acid, Phosphatidic
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.

Acid, Phosphinic
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.

Acid, Phosphonoacetic
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.

Acid, Phosphotungstic
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Acid, Phytanic
A 20-carbon branched chain fatty acid. In phytanic acid storage disease (REFSUM DISEASE) this lipid may comprise as much as 30% of the total fatty acids of the plasma. This is due to a phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.

Acid, Phytic
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.

Acid, Pimelic
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.

Acid, Piperamic
Antimicrobial against Gram negative and some Gram positive bacteria. It is protein bound and concentrated in bile and urine and used for gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary infections.

Acid, Piromidic
Antibacterial against mainly gram negative organisms. It is used for urinary tract and intestinal infections.

Acid, Polyadenylic-Polyuridylic
A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.

Acid, Polyanhydroglucuronic
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.

Acid, Pseudomonic
A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.

Acid, Pyruvic
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Acid, Quinic
An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Acid, Ribonucleic
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Acid, Selenious
A selenium compound used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.

Acid, Taurochenodeoxycholic
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Acid, Taurodeoxycholic
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.

Acid, Taurolithocholic
A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.

Acid, Technetium-99m-Diisopropyliminodiacetic
A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)

Acid, Tenuazonic
3-Acetyl-5-sec-butyl-4-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one. A metabolite found in a strain of the fungus Alternaria tenuis Auct. which functions as an antibiotic with antiviral and antineoplastic properties, and may also act as a mycotoxin.

Acid, Tetradecanoic
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occuring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Acid, Thienylic
A novel diuretic with uricosuric action. It has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.

Acid, Thymidylic
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.

Acid, Tranexamic
Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.

Acid, trans fatty
An unhealthy substance, also known as trans fat, made through the chemical process of hydrogenation of oils. Hydrogenation solidifies liquid oils and increases the shelf life and the flavor stability of oils and foods that contain them. Trans fat is found in vegetable shortenings and in some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods and other foods.

Acid, Trichloroacetic
A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.

Acid, Trifluoroacetic
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.

Acid, Triiodobenzoic
Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.

Acid, tRNA-Amino
A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.

Acid, Undecylenic
Salts and derivatives of undecylenic acid.

Acid, Uridine Diphosphoglucuronic
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.

Acid, Urogranoic
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.

Acid-base balance
Acid-base balance refers to the mechanisms the body uses to keep its fluids close to neutral pH (that is, neither basic nor acidic) so that the body can function normally.

Acid-Specific tRNA, Aspartic
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.

Acid-Specific tRNA, Glutamic
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.

Acidemia, Hyperpipecolic
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; infantile Refsum disease; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.

Acidic Amino Acid
Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.

Acidic Amino Acid Transporters
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).

Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor
A 17 kD single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).

Acidic Glycosphingolipids
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.

Acidic Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor
A pancreatic trypsin inhibitor common to all mammals. It is secreted with the zymogens into the pancreatic juice. It is a protein composed of 56 amino acid residues and is different in amino acid composition and physiological activity from the Kunitz bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (APROTININ).

AcidinPepsin
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)

Acidity Determinations, Gastric
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.

Acidophilic Adenoma
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Acidophilus
"Bacteria found in yogurt that can help restore a supportive bacterial environment to an intestinal tract whose normal intestinal bacterial population (""flora"") has been disturbed by disease or antibiotics. Eating yogurt with acidophilus may also be useful in preventing candidiasis (thrush), including in the vagina."

Acidosis
An abnormal condition in the body in which excessive acid lowers the pH of the blood and body tissues.

Acidosis, Diabetic
Complication of diabetes resulting from severe insulin deficiency coupled with an absolute or relative increase in glucagon concentration. The metabolic acidosis is caused by the breakdown of adipose stores and resulting increased levels of free fatty acids. Glucagon accelerates the oxidation of the free fatty acids producing excess ketone bodies (ketosis).

Acidosis, Lactic
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as diabetes mellitus, leukemia, or liver failure.

Acidosis, Renal Tubular Type IV
Aldosterone deficiency, usually associated with hypoadrenalism, and characterized by hypotension, dehydration, and a tendency to excrete excessive amounts of sodium. A selective aldosterone deficiency resulting from low renin production is called hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)

Acidosis, Renal Tubular, Type II
A rare sometimes familial disorder of the renal tubule characterized by the inability to excrete urine of normal acidity. This leads to a hyperchloremic acidosis which is often associated with one or more secondary complications such as hypercalcinuria with nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, rickets, or osteomalacia and severe potassium depletion.

Acidosis, Respiratory
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.

Acids, 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic
Salts and esters of gentisic acid.

Acids, 2-Butenoic
4-Carbon monounsaturated monocarboxylic acids with the unsaturation in the 2 position.

Acids, Acyclic
Carboxylic acids that have open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures.

Acids, Adipic
A group of dicarboxylic acids that are structurally related to hexanedioic acid (adipic acid). (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Acids, Aldehydic
Dicarboxylic acids in which one of the carboxyl groups (-COOH) has been replaced by an aldehyde group (-CHO).

Acids, Alkanesulfonic
Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.

Acids, Amino
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

Acids, Aminobenzenesulfonic
Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.

Acids, Aminobenzoic
BENZOIC ACID substituted with an amino group. They can either be mono-, di-, or tri- substituted. Para-aminobenzoic acid (see 4-AMINOBENZOIC ACID) is considered a member of the vitamin b complex.

Acids, Aminohippuric
A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.

Acids, Aminoisobutyric
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.

Acids, Anthranilic
Benzoic acids which are substituted with an amino group in the C-2 position.

Acids, Arachidic
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.

Acids, Arylsulfonic
Organic sulfonic acid derivatives which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.

Acids, Benzoic
Acids, salts, and derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.

Acids, Bile
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.

Acids, Boric
Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.

Acids, Borinic
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the general structure R2B(OH).

Acids, Boronic
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.

Acids, Branched-Chain Amino
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.

Acids, Brassidic
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.

Acids, Butyric
4-carbon acids, salts, and derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID.

Acids, Caffeic
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid,p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.

Acids, Capric
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.

Acids, Carbocyclic
Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon.

Acids, Carboxylic
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.

Acids, Cephalosporanic
A family of organic compounds that are composed of a dihydrothiazine ring and a beta-lactam ring.

Acids, Cholalic
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.

Acids, Clavulanic
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.

Acids, Coumaric
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.

Acids, Cyclic Amino
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.

Acids, Dihydrooleic
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Acids, Docosahexenoic
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.

Acids, Dodecanoic
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.

Acids, Essential Amino
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.

Acids, Essential Fatty
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.

Acids, Ethanedioic
Acids, salts, and derivatives of OXALIC ACID.

Acids, Formyltetrahydrofolic
Tetrahydrofolates which are substituted by a formyl group at either the nitrogen atom in the 5 position or the nitrogen atom in the 10 position. N(5)-Formyltetrahydrofolate is leukovorin (citrovorum factor) while N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate is an active coenzyme which functions as a carrier of the formyl group in a number of enzymatic reactions.

Acids, Free Fatty
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.

Acids, Glucuronic
Derivatives of uronic acid that are distributed widely throughout the plant and animal kingdoms.

Acids, Glutaminic
Salts and esters of glutamic acid.

Acids, Heptanoic
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.

Acids, Heterocyclic
A class of acids containing a ring structure in which atleast one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.

Acids, Hexuronic
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.

Acids, Humic
Allomelanins found in soils, coals, and peat, resulting from the decomposition of organic matter, particularly dead plants. They are a mixture of complex macromolecules having polymeric phenolic structures with the ability to chelate metals, especially iron. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

Acids, Hydroxy
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.

Acids, Hydroxybenzoic
Benzoic acid substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.

Acids, Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.

Acids, Indoleacetic
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

Acids, Levulinic
Keto acids that are derivatives of 4-oxopentanoic acids (levulinic acid).

Acids, Linoleic
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.

Acids, Lysophosphatidic
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.

Acids, Mandelic
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).

Acids, Monounsaturated Fatty
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.

Acids, Myristic
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.

Acids, N-Acetylneuraminic
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.

Acids, Naphthaleneacetic
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.

Acids, Neutral Amino
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.

Acids, Nicotinic
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.

Acids, Noncarboxylic
Inorganic acids with a non metal, other than carbon, attached to hydrogen, or an acid radical containing no carbon.

Acids, Nucleic
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.

Acids, Oleic
A group of fatty acids that contain 16 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.

Acids, Palmitic
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.

Acids, Peptide Nucleic
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.

Acids, Phenylpyruvic
A group of compounds that are derivatives of phenylpyruvic acid which has the general formula C6H5CH2COCOOH, and is a metabolite of phenylalanine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Acids, Phosphinous
Inorganic acids that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.

Acids, Phosphonic
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphonic acid with the general formula ROP(OH)2. This includes phosphonates and phosphonic acid esters. The tautomeric form of this compound (P(OH)3) = PHOSPHOROUS ACIDS.

Acids, Phosphoric
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Inorganic salts are known as PHOSPHATES and organic esters are PHOSPHORIC ACID ESTERS.

Acids, Phosphorous
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphorous acid (P(OH)3). Inorganic salts are known as PHOSPHITES. The tautomeric form of this compound (HPO(OH)2) = PHOSPHONIC ACIDS.

Acids, Phosphorus Amino
Amino acids that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.

Acids, Phthalic
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Acids, Polycytidylic
A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

Acids, Polyguanylic
A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

Acids, Polyinosinic
A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

Acids, Polythymidylic
A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.

Acids, Polyunsaturated Fatty
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Acids, Polyuridylic
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

Acids, Propionic
3-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.

Acids, Prostanoic
2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.

Acids, Pteroylpolyglutamic
Derivatives of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid). In gamma-glutamyl linkage they are found in many tissues. They are converted to folic acid by the action of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase or synthesized from folic acid by the action of folate polyglutamate synthetase. Synthetic pteroylpolyglutamic acids, which are in alpha-glutamyl linkage, are active in bacterial growth assays.

Acids, Salicylic
Derivatives and salts of SALICYLIC ACID.

Acids, Succinic
A class of dicarboxylic acids with the general structure of butanedioic acid (succinic acid). They are used in perfumery and as a chemical intermediate in medicine.

Acids, Sulfenic
Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Acids, Sulfinic
Any of the monobasic inorganic or organic acids of sulfur with the general formula RSO(OH). (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Acids, Sulfonic
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.

Acids, Sulfur
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.

Acids, Sulfuric
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.

Acids, Thiosulfonic
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the general formula RS2O2H.

Acids, Tricarboxylic
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)

Acids, Uronic
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)



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Acid beta Glucosidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Acid Base Imbalance
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.

Acid Base Equilibrium
The balance between acids and bases in the blood plasma. Normally it results in a slightly alkaline state with an excess of hydroxyl ions in comparison to hydrogen. The balance is achieved by the offset of the ingestion and production of acidic and basic material by the amount of acidic and basic material metabolized and excreted by the body.

Acid Aspiration Syndromes
A type of pneumonia resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper respiratory tract.

Acid Antagonists, gamma-Aminobutyric
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID or GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID agonists.

Acid Antagonists, Folic

Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.

Acid Ammonia Ligases
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.

Acid Amino Acid Ligases
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of an acid and an amino acid by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.2.

Acid Dehydratase, delta-Aminolevulinic
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC 4.2.1.24.

Acid Deficiency, Folic
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

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