Acetylcysteine
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  Acetylcysteine



Acetylcysteine

   An antioxidant drug used to reduce the thickness of mucus and ease its removal. It is also used to reverse the toxicity of high doses of acetaminophen. Acetylcysteine with hydration significantly reduces the risk of contrast nephropathy in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Also called N-acetyl-L-cysteine.

RELATED TERMS
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Antioxidant
Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons and thus modifying chemical structures.

Mucus
A substance secreted by various tissues in the body (the mucous membranes) made up of water, mucin (a glycoprotein), salts, and some cells. In the lungs, mucus serves to lubricate the insides of the airways and to trap inhaled foreign particles so that they can be coughed out. In asthma, however, an excess of mucus is produced and can actually block airways. Mucus also tends to be thicker and more viscous in asthmatics.

Acetaminophen
An analgesic and antipyretic medication.

Acetylcysteine
An antioxidant drug used to reduce the thickness of mucus and ease its removal. It is also used to reverse the toxicity of high doses of acetaminophen. Acetylcysteine with hydration significantly reduces the risk of contrast nephropathy in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Also called N-acetyl-L-cysteine.

Hydration
Provision of fluids by any means to prevent dehydration.

Risk
In clinical trials, the probability of harm or discomfort for subjects, arising from the test product. Acceptable risk differs depending on the condition for which a product is being tested. A product for sore throat, for example, will be expected to have a low incidence of side effects. However, unpleasant side effects may be an acceptable risk when testing a promising treatment for a life-threatening illness.

Contrast
"Short for ""contrast media."" Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contrast, for example, between blood vessels and other tissue."

Nephropathy
Any disease of the kidney.

Chronic
Ongoing or recurring. Chronic medical conditions include diabetes, epilepsy, and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Renal
Pertains to kidneys.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Acetabular
"Pertaining to the acetabulum, the cup-shaped socket of the hip joint which is a key feature of the pelvis. The head (upper end) of the femur (the thighbone) fits into the acetabulum and articulates with it, forming a ball-and-socket joint. The acetabulum is not just cup-shaped. The word ""acetabulum"" in Latin means cup, a vinegar cup."

Acetabular labrum
"A ring of fibrocartilage (fibrous cartilage) that runs around the acetabulum (cup) of the hip joint and increases its depth. The head of the femur (the bone in the thigh) fits in the acetabulum. The labrum deepens this cavity and effectively increases the surface (and strength) of the hip joint. Injuries to the acetabular labrum can occur from chronic trauma due to repetitive hip motion or from acute trauma as, for example, from a direct blow to the hip or a violent motion of the hip. Signs and symptoms of a acetabular labrum injury include pain accompanying hip motion, occasional pain in the hip at night or during daily activities, decreased range of motion and loss of strength in the hip. Treatment may include anti-inflammatory medication and rest. Exercises to strengthen the hip muscles may then be recommended. If these measures are not effective, arthroscopic surgery may be done. In medicine, a labrum is a ring of fibrocartilage around the edge of the articular (joint) surface of a bone. The Latin ""labrum"" means ""lip."" The term is used generally to designate a lip, edge, or brim. Plural, labra."

Acetabularia
A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.

Acetabulum
"The cup-shaped socket of the hip joint. In fact, in Latin an ""acetabulum"" is cup, a vinegar cup. The acetabulum is a feature of the pelvis. The head (upper end) of the femur (the thighbone) fits into the acetabulum and articulates with it, forming a ball-and-socket joint."

Acetadote
Acetadote is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetylcysteine.

Acetaldehyde
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.

Acetamides
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.

Acetaminophen
An analgesic and antipyretic medication.

Acetaminophen and butalbital and caffeine
Acetaminophen and butalbital and caffeine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; butalbital; caffeine.

Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate
Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate No. 2
Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate No. 2 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate no. 2
Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate no. 2 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate No. 3
Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate No. 3 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate .

Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate no. 3
Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate no. 3 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate No. 4
Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate No. 4 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate no. 4
Acetaminophen and codeine phosphate no. 4 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen and hydrocodone bitartrate
Acetaminophen and hydrocodone bitartrate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; hydrocodone bitartrate.

Acetaminophen and pentazocine hcl
Acetaminophen and pentazocine hcl is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; pentazocine hydrochloride.

Acetaminophen and tramadol hcl
Acetaminophen and tramadol hcl is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; tramadol hydrochloride.

Acetaminophen with codeine
Acetaminophen with codeine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen with codeine No. 2
Acetaminophen with codeine No. 2 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen with codeine no. 2
Acetaminophen with codeine no. 2 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen with codeine no. 3
Acetaminophen with codeine no. 3 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen with codeine No. 4
Acetaminophen with codeine No. 4 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen with codeine phosphate
Acetaminophen with codeine phosphate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen with codeine phosphate No. 3
Acetaminophen with codeine phosphate No. 3 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen, aspirin and caffeine
Acetaminophen, aspirin and caffeine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; aspirin; caffeine.

Acetaminophen, aspirin, and codeine phosphate
Acetaminophen, aspirin, and codeine phosphate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; aspirin; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen, butalbital and caffeine
Acetaminophen, butalbital and caffeine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; butalbital; caffeine.

Acetaminophen, butalbital, and caffeine
Acetaminophen, butalbital, and caffeine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; butalbital; caffeine.

Acetaminophen, butalbital, caffeine, and codeine phosphate
Acetaminophen, butalbital, caffeine, and codeine phosphate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; butalbital; caffeine; codeine phosphate.

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and dihydrocodeine bitartrate
Acetaminophen, caffeine, and dihydrocodeine bitartrate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetaminophen; caffeine; dihydrocodeine bitartrate.

Acetanilid
N-Phenylacetamide. Precursor of many drugs, dyes and other compounds in chemical synthesis; formerly used as analgesic and antipyretic, but often causes lethal methemoglobinemia. Synonyms: acetylaniline; acetylaminobenzene; antifebrin.

Acetasol
Acetasol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetic acid, glacial.

Acetasol hc
Acetasol hc is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetic acid, glacial; hydrocortisone.

Acetate
A molecular ion derived from acetic acid. The formula of acetate is CH3COO-.

Acetate Esterase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.

Acetate Free Biofiltration
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.

Acetate Kinase
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.

Acetate Thiokinase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.

Acetate, Benzocaine
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along nerve fibers and at nerve endings.

Acetate, Buserelin
A potent and durable analog of naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GONADORELIN).

Acetate, Carbamazepine
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.

Acetate, Chlorhexidine
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.

Acetate, Chlormadinone
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.

Acetate, Depo-Medroxyprogesterone
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.

Acetate, Dequalinium
A topical bacteriostat that is available as various salts. It is used in wound dressings and mouth infections and may also have antifungal action, but may cause skin ulceration.

Acetate, Desmopressin
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGIPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the vasopressin receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.

Acetate, Diethylaminoethyldiphenylpropyl
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and cytochrome P-450 activity.

Acetate, Dipropyl
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.

Acetate, Flurogestone
A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.

Acetate, Gonadorelin
A decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

Acetate, Hydrated Saralasin
An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II.

Acetate, Leuprolide
A potent and long acting analog of naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GONADORELIN). Its action is similar to gonadorelin, which regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins.

Acetate, Lysine
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.

Acetate, Mafenide
A sulfonamide that inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase and is used as topical anti-infective, especially in burn therapy.

Acetate, Megestrol
Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)

Acetate, Melengestrol
A progestational hormone with reported glucocorticoid and antineoplastic activity.

Acetate, Methylazoxymethanol
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.

Acetate, Mitoxantrone
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.

Acetate, Oxyphenisatin
A laxative that undergoes enterohepatic circulation. It may cause jaundice.

Acetate, Paroxetine
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.

Acetate, Phenylmercuric
A phenyl mercury compound used mainly as a fungicide. Has also been used as a herbicide, slimicide, and bacteriocide.

Acetate, Potassium
An electrolyte replenisher, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used as a diuretic and expectorant. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Acetate, Sodium
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.

Acetate, Teriparatide
A synthetic polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human parathyroid hormone, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)

Acetate, Tetradecanoylphorbol
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.

Acetate, Zinc
A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.

Acetated ringers in plastic container
Acetated ringers in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): calcium chloride; potassium chloride; sodium acetate; sodium chloride .

Acetates, Germine
Germine derivatives acetylated on any one or more of the hydroxy groups. These compounds are present in many polyester alkaloids which occur in Veratrum and Zygadenus species. They are used as antihypertensive agents, and in some cases, exhibit curare-like activity.

Acetazolamide
Acetazolamide is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetazolamide.

Acetazolamide sodium
Acetazolamide sodium is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetazolamide sodium.

Acetic acid
The acid most commonly associated with vinegar. Acetic acid is a two-carbon carboxylic acid. Its formula is: CH3COOH. It is the most commercially important organic acid and is used in the manufacture of a broad range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides.

Acetic acid 0.25 per cent in plastic container
Acetic acid 0.25 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetic acid, glacial.

Acetic acid 2 per cent in aqueous aluminum acetate
Acetic acid 2 per cent in aqueous aluminum acetate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetic acid, glacial; aluminum acetate.

Acetic acid with hydrocortisone
Acetic acid with hydrocortisone is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): acetic acid, glacial; hydrocortisone.

Acetic Acid, Glacial
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Acetic Acids
Acetic acid and its derivatives which may be formed by substitution reactions. Mono- and di-substituted, as well as halogenated compounds have been synthesized.

Acetic Anhydrides
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.

Acetoacetate
A molecular ion, CH3COCH2COO-, derived from acetoacetic acid.

Acetoacetates
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.

Acetoacetyl CoA Thiolase
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA. EC 2.3.1.9.

Acetobacter
A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in flowers and fruits. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.

Acetobacteraceae
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.

Acetohexamide
A "first-generation" sulfonylurea pill taken to lower the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Only some people with Type 2 diabetes take these pills.

Acetohydroxy Acid Reductoisomerase
An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. It converts 2-acetolactate into 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-isovalerate. Also acts on 2-hydroxy-2-acetobutyrate to form 2-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. EC 5.4.99.3.

Acetoin
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.

Acetoin Dehydrogenase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.5.

Acetolactate Synthetase
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of pyruvate in the biosynthesis of valine and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of isoleucine. EC 4.1.3.18.

Acetonchloroform
A colorless to white crystalline compound with a camphoraceous odor and taste. It is a widely used preservative in various pharmaceutical solutions, especially injectables. Also, it is an active ingredient in certain oral sedatives and topical anesthetics.

Acetone
"In the body, a chemical that is formed when the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy. The formation of acetone means that cells lack insulin or cannot effectively use available insulin to burn glucose for energy. Acetone passes through the body into the urine as one of the so-called ketone bodies. Acetone is highly volatile. The breath of someone with a great deal of acetone in the body smells fruity and is called ""acetone breath."""

Acetone Bodies
The substances beta-hydroxybutyric acid, acetoacetic acid, and acetone, which are produced by fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver in approximately a 78:20:2 ratio. Acetoacetate is produced from acetyl-CoA. Most is enzymatically converted to beta-ketobutyrate, but a small amount is spontaneously decarboxylated to acetone. The ketone bodies can be used as fuels by muscle and brain tissue. In starvation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, large quantities are produced, causing metabolic acidosis and elevated blood and urine levels of all three ketone bodies. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Acetonide 21-Acetate, Fluocinolone
A topical glucocorticoid used in the treatment of eczemas.

Acetonide, Fluortriamcinolone
One of the GLUCOCORTICOIDS used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)

Acetonide, Triamcinolone
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.

Acetonitriles
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.

Acetophenetidin
A non-prostaglandin synthase inhibitor. It was utilized extensively in a wide variety of analgesic mixtures, but its causal role in analgesic-abuse nephropathy led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)

Acetophenide, Alphasone
(16 alpha(R))-16,17-((1-Phenylethylidene)bis(oxy))pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A progesterone that has been used in estrus synchronization and has been evaluated as an injectable contraceptive in combination with estradiol enanthate. It is also used therapeutically as a topical anti-inflammatory and is applied topically in the treatment of acne.

Acetoxyacetylaminofluorene
An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.

Acetrizoic Acid
An iodinated radiographic contrast medium used as acetrizoate sodium in HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY.

Acetyl beta methylcholine
A quarternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolysed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)

Acetyl Carnitine
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of acetyl CoA into the matrices of mammalian mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.

Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.

Acetyl CoA Acylase
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC 3.1.2.1.

Acetyl CoA Acyltransferase
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which acetyl-CoA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed. EC 2.3.1.16.

Acetyl CoA Arylamine N Acetyltransferase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines. They have wide specificity for aromatic amines, particularly serotonin, and can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without CoA. EC 2.3.1.5.

Acetyl coenzyme A
An important metabolic intermediate, derived from various pathways, such as glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and degradation of some amino acids. It also represents a key intermediate in lipid biosynthesis. Commonly referred to as acetyl CoA.

Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.

Acetyl Glyceryl Ether Phosphorylcholine
A phospholipid derivative formed by platelets, basophils, neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including hypotension, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and bronchoconstriction.

Acetyl Hapten, NIP
Also called 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetate. A haptenic determinant that can be radiolabeled and used as salts and derivatives for investigations of immunogenic specificity studies.

Acetyl Hydroperoxide
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.

Acetyl phosphate
A molecular ion which plays a role in the synthesis of the four-carbon fatty acid, butyric acid. The formula for acetyl phosphate is: CH3COPO42-.

Acetylaminofluorene
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the arylhydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.

Acetylase, Choline
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.

Acetylated, Dephosphorylated beta-Casein
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.

Acetylation
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Acetylbenzoylaconine
A alkaloid from the root of Aconitum napellus L. and other aconites. Activates voltage-gated Na+ channels. Has been used to induce arrhythmia in experimental animals. Shows antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.

Acetylcholine
The neurotransmitter substance at cholinergic synapses, which causes cardiac inhibition, vasodilation, gastrointestinal peristalsis, and other parasympathetic effects. It is liberated from preganglionic and postganglionic endings of parasympathetic fibers and from preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic as a result of nerve injuries, whereupon it acts as a transmitter on the effector organ; it is hydrolyzed into choline and acetic acid by acetylcholinesterase before a second impulse may be transmitted.

Acetylcholine (ACH, Ach)
The neurotransmitter substance at cholinergic synapses, which causes cardiac inhibition, vasodilation, gastrointestinal peristalsis, and other parasympathetic effects. It is liberated from preganglionic and postganglionic endings of parasympathetic fibers and from preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic as a result of nerve injuries, whereupon it acts as a transmitter on the effector organ; it is hydrolyzed into choline and acetic acid by acetylcholinesterase before a second impulse may be transmitted.

Acetylcholine Agents
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.

Acetylcholine Agonists
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.

Acetylcholine Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate cholinergic receptors, thereby blocking the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists.

Acetylcholine Hydrolase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and ACETATE. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.

Acetylcholine Receptors
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.

Acetylcholine Receptors, Muscarinic
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for muscarine over nicotine. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.

Acetylcholine Receptors, Nicotinic
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for nicotine over muscarine. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, molecular biology, and biophysical properties of the channels.

Acetylcholinesterase
An enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft (the space between two nerve cells) so the next nerve impulse can be transmitted across the synaptic gap. Pesticides of the organophosphate and carbamate types act to paralyze and kill insects by inhibiting their acetylcholinesterase. Abbreviated AChE.

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.

Acetylcysteine Hydrochloride
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.

Acetyldigoxins
Alpha- or beta-acetyl derivatives of DIGOXIN or lanatoside C from Digitalis lanata. They are better absorbed and longer acting than digoxin and are used in congestive heart failure.

Acetylformaldehyde
An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.

Acetylgalactosamine
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.

Acetylgalactosamine, UDP
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.

Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, Fucosyl Galactose
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetylgalactosamine from UDP N-acetylgalactosamine to various 2-fucosylgalactosides as acceptors. EC 2.4.1.40.

Acetylglucosamine
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.

Acetylglucosamine, UDP
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.

Acetylglucosaminidase
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside acetamidodeoxygluco-hydrolase. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as mucolipidosis and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.

Acetylglucosaminyltransferase, Chitin-UDP
An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.

Acetylmuramic Acid, UDP
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which is formed from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate. It serves as the building block upon which peptidoglycan is formed.

Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine
Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.

Acetylneuraminic Acid, CMP
A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.

Acetylpheneturide
An anticonvulsant.

Acetylsalicylic Acid
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)

Acetylserotonin N-Methyltransferase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to N-acetylserotonin to form N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (MELATONIN). EC 2.1.1.4.

Acetylsulfanilamide
An anti-infective agent that is used topically to treat skin infections and orally for urinary tract infections.

Acetylthiocholine
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.

Acetyltransferase, Carnitine
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.

Acetyltransferase, Chloramphenicol
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.

Acetyltransferase, Phosphate
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.

Acetyltransferases
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.

Acetysalicylic acid
The active substance in aspirin, a medication developed by Bayer.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Acetone
"In the body, a chemical that is formed when the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy. The formation of acetone means that cells lack insulin or cannot effectively use available insulin to burn glucose for energy. Acetone passes through the body into the urine as one of the so-called ketone bodies. Acetone is highly volatile. The breath of someone with a great deal of acetone in the body smells fruity and is called ""acetone breath."""

Acetyl coenzyme A
An important metabolic intermediate, derived from various pathways, such as glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and degradation of some amino acids. It also represents a key intermediate in lipid biosynthesis. Commonly referred to as acetyl CoA.

Acetyl phosphate
A molecular ion which plays a role in the synthesis of the four-carbon fatty acid, butyric acid. The formula for acetyl phosphate is: CH3COPO42-.

Acetylcholinesterase
An enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft (the space between two nerve cells) so the next nerve impulse can be transmitted across the synaptic gap. Pesticides of the organophosphate and carbamate types act to paralyze and kill insects by inhibiting their acetylcholinesterase. Abbreviated AChE.

Acetylcysteine

ACG2
Achondrogenesis type II.

ACh (acetylcholine)
Abbreviation for acetylcholine. See: Acetylcholine.

Achalasia
"A disease of the esophagus caused by the abnormal function of nerves and muscles of the esophagus that makes swallowing difficult. There may sometimes be chest pain. Regurgitation of undigested food can occur, as can coughing or breathing problems due to entry of food into the lungs. The underlying problems are weakness of the lower portion of the esophagus and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to open and allow passage of food. Achalasia may occur at any age but is predominantly a disease of young adults. Diagnosis is made by an X-ray, endoscopy, or esophageal manometry (to measure the pressure in the esophagus). Treatment includes medication, dilation (stretching) to widen the lower part of the esophagus, and surgery to open the lower esophagus. A fairly recent approach involves injecting medicines into the lower esophagus to relax the sphincter. The ""ch"" in achalasia is pronounced ""k"" as in ""ache"". The word achalasia comes from the Greek ""a-"", failure or absence + ""chalasis"", relaxation = a failure of relaxation, referring to failure of the lower sphincter muscle of the esophagus to relax."

AChE (acetylcholinesterase)
Abbreviation for acetylcholinesterase. See: Acetylcholinesterase.

Achilles
In Greek mythology, the hero who was thought to have some special medical knowledge. Achilles studied medicine with Chiron, the centaur, who invented it.

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