Abducent nerve
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  Abducent nerve



Abducent nerve

    A small motor nerve that has one task: to supply a muscle called the lateral rectus muscle that moves the eye outward. Paralysis of the abducent nerve causes inward turning of the eye (internal strabismus) leading to double vision. The abducent nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. All 12 cranial nerves, the abducent nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the vertebral column.

RELATED TERMS
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Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

Muscle
Tissue made up of bundles of long, slender cells that contract when stimulated.

Lateral
Toward the side, sideways.

Paralysis
Inability to move parts of the body.

Vision
The sense of sight.

Cranial
The anatomical term for towards the head; also the general term for of the head. i.e. the lungs are cranial to the pelvis. See Caudal/Inferior/Superior

Skull
The bony framework of the head.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Abducens Nerve
The 6th cranial nerve. The abducens nerve originates in the abducens nucleus of the pons and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the eye. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.

Abducens Nerve Palsy
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.

Abducens Nerve Traumas
Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.

Abduction
In medicine, the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body. Abduction of both legs spreads the legs. The opposite of abduction is adduction. Adduction of the legs brings them together.

Abductor muscle
Any muscle used to pull a body part away from the midline of the body. For example, the abductor muscles of the legs spread the legs away from the midline and away from one another.

Abductor spasmodic dysphonia
A disorder in which sudden muscle spasms cause the vocal folds (or vocal cords) to stay open. See spasmodic dysphonia.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Abdominal cavity
The cavity within the abdomen, the space between the abdominal wall and the spine. The abdominal cavity is hardly an empty space. It contains a number of crucial organs including the lower part of the esophagus, the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and bladder.

Abdominal guarding
Tensing of the abdominal wall muscles to guard inflamed organs within the abdomen from the pain of pressure upon them. The tensing is detected when the abdomen wall is pressed. Guarding is a characteristic finding in the physical examination for an abruptly painful abdomen (an acute abdomen) with inflammation of the inner abdominal (peritoneal) surface due, for example, to appendicitis or diverticulitis. The tensed muscles of the abdominal wall automatically go into spasm to keep the tender underlying tissues from being touched.

Abdominal muscle deficiency syndrome
Partial or complete absence of the abdominal muscles so that the outlines of the intestines are visible through the thin, lax, protruding abdominal wall. Also called the "prune belly syndrome." The full syndrome probably occurs only in males. In addition to the abdominal muscle deficiency, there are genital and urinary abnormalities including dilation (widening) of the urinary tract and cryptorchidism (failure for the testes to descend into the scrotum). There is also a form of abdominal muscle deficiency that is associated with narrowing (stenosis) of the pulmonary artery, mental retardation and deafness. It occurs in both boys and girls.

Abdominal muscles
A large group of muscles in the front of the abdomen that assists in the regular breathing movement and supports the muscles of the spine while lifting and keeping abdominal organs such as the intestines in place. Abdominal muscles play a key role in exercises such as "sit-ups." They are informally called the "abs".

Abdominal pain
Pain in the belly (the abdomen). Abdominal pain can come from conditions affecting a variety of organs. The abdomen is an anatomical area that is bounded by the lower margin of the ribs above, the pelvic bone (pubic ramus) below, and the flanks on each side. Although abdominal pain can arise from the tissues of the abdominal wall that surround the abdominal cavity (the skin and abdominal wall muscles), the term abdominal pain generally is used to describe pain originating from organs within the abdominal cavity (from beneath the skin and muscles). These organs include the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

Abducent nerve

Abduction
In medicine, the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body. Abduction of both legs spreads the legs. The opposite of abduction is adduction. Adduction of the legs brings them together.

Abductor muscle
Any muscle used to pull a body part away from the midline of the body. For example, the abductor muscles of the legs spread the legs away from the midline and away from one another.

Abductor spasmodic dysphonia
A disorder in which sudden muscle spasms cause the vocal folds (or vocal cords) to stay open. See spasmodic dysphonia.

Aberration
(1) A deviation or irregularity. For example, a chromosome aberration is a deviation from the normal chromosome number or the normal chromosome structure. In this sense, aberration is also synonymous with deflection, departure, divergence, diversion, turning. (2) A mental aberration is a significant deviation from normal mental activity. In this sense, aberration is synonymous with mental derangement, mental illness, psychopathy.

Arterial blood gas
ABG. The sampling of the blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the arteries, as opposed to the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in venous blood. Typically, the acidity, or pH, of the blood is measured simultaneously in ABG sampling.

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