Abducens Nerve Palsy
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  Abducens Nerve Palsy



Abducens Nerve Palsy

   Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.

RELATED TERMS
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Diseases
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.

Cranial
The anatomical term for towards the head; also the general term for of the head. i.e. the lungs are cranial to the pelvis. See Caudal/Inferior/Superior

Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

Nucleus
Plural: nuclei. The compartment of a cell that contains the chromosomes.

Pons
A piece of connecting tissue, specifically the bridge of white matter at the base of the brain.

Base
A chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Bases and acids are referred to as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Arrhenius bases are water-soluble and always have a pH greater than 7 in solution.

Brain
"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "

Sinus
Paranasal sinuses. Air cavities within the facial bones, lined by mucous membranes similar to those in other parts of the airways.

Superior
The anatomical term for "above". i.e. the head is superior to the shoulder. Typically used in humans only. See Cranial/Caudal/Inferior.

Fissure
A narrow slit.

Orbit
The bony cavity containing the eyeball. Eye socket.

Dysfunction
Difficult function or abnormal function.

Lateral
Toward the side, sideways.

Muscle
Tissue made up of bundles of long, slender cells that contract when stimulated.

Diplopia
Diplopia is a visual disorder that results in double vision, such that when the viewer looks at an object it seems as if there are two objects. It can arise when the eye muscles are not functioning as intended, and the eyes are not correctly aligned while focusing on an object. This binocular diplopia disappears when one eye is closed.

ESOTROPIA
Commonly known as "crossed eyes". One eye is constantly turned inward toward the nose. In children, esotropia may lead to suppression of the visual signals from the eye to the brain and lead to amblyopia and decreased depth perception. In adults with previously straight eyes (for example after head trauma), esotropia causes constant double vision.

Injury
Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical.

INTRACRANIAL
Within the skull.

HYPERTENSION
Higher blood pressure than normal. Diastolic blood pressure from 90 to 99 mm HG is considered mild hypertension; 100109, moderate hypertension; and 110 or greater, severe hypertension. Systolic blood pressure from 140 to 159 mm HG is considered mild hypertension; 160179, moderate hypertension; and 180 or greater, severe hypertension.

TRAUMA
Injury caused by external force, chemical, temperature extremes, or poor tooth alignment.

ISCHEMIA
Decreased flow of oxygenated blood to an organ due to obstruction in an artery.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Abducens Nerve
The 6th cranial nerve. The abducens nerve originates in the abducens nucleus of the pons and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the eye. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.

Abducens Nerve Traumas
Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.

Abducent nerve
A small motor nerve that has one task: to supply a muscle called the lateral rectus muscle that moves the eye outward. Paralysis of the abducent nerve causes inward turning of the eye (internal strabismus) leading to double vision. The abducent nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. All 12 cranial nerves, the abducent nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the vertebral column.

Abduction
In medicine, the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body. Abduction of both legs spreads the legs. The opposite of abduction is adduction. Adduction of the legs brings them together.

Abductor muscle
Any muscle used to pull a body part away from the midline of the body. For example, the abductor muscles of the legs spread the legs away from the midline and away from one another.

Abductor spasmodic dysphonia
A disorder in which sudden muscle spasms cause the vocal folds (or vocal cords) to stay open. See spasmodic dysphonia.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Abdominal Epilepsy
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

Abdominal Delivery
Extraction of the fetus by means of abdominal hysterotomy.

Abdominal Decompression
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.

Abdominal Cramps
Paroxysms of pain. This condition usually occurs in the abdominal region but may occur in other body regions as well.

Abducens Nerve Traumas
Traumatic injury to the abducens, or sixth, cranial nerve. Injury to this nerve results in lateral rectus muscle weakness or paralysis. The nerve may be damaged by closed or penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA or by facial trauma involving the orbit.

Abducens Nerve Palsy

Abducens Nerve
The 6th cranial nerve. The abducens nerve originates in the abducens nucleus of the pons and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the eye. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.

Abdominal Typhus
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI.

Abdominal Radiography
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.

Abdominal Pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy with development of the fetus in the abdominal cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Aberrant Tissue
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.

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