A (adenine)
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  A (adenine)



A (adenine)

    In genetics, A stands for adenine, one member of the A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair in DNA. The other base pair in DNA is G-C (guanine-cytosine). Each base pair forms a "rung of the DNA ladder." A DNA nucleotide is made of a molecule of sugar, a molecule of phosphoric acid, and a molecule called a base. The bases are the "letters" that spell out the genetic code. In DNA, the code letters are A, T, G, and C, which stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In DNA base pairing, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine. Adenine is also one of the bases in RNA. There it always pairs with uracil (U). The base pairs in RNA are therefore A-U and G-C.

RELATED TERMS
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Genetics
The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other organisms. So, for example, there is human genetics, mouse genetics, fruitfly genetics, etc.

Adenine
A purine base found in RNA and DNA; in double-stranded DNA adenine pairs with the pyrimidine thymine.

Base
A chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Bases and acids are referred to as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Arrhenius bases are water-soluble and always have a pH greater than 7 in solution.

DNA
Deoxyribo-Nucleic acid. DNA molecules carry the genetic information necessary for the organization and functioning of most living cells and control the inheritance of characteristics.

Forms
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the developing, maintaining, and handling of forms and records.

Sugar
A class of carbohydrates that taste sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.

Genetic
Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.

Code
The genetic code is the correspondence between the triplet of bases in DNA with the amino acids.

Thymine
A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair AT (adenine-thymine).

Guanine
(guanine triphosphate) One of the 4 types of nucleotides that make up DNA. Base pairs with cytosine by 3 hydrogen bonds.

Cytosine
One of the pyrimidine nitrogenous bases occurring in both DNA and RNA.

Pairing
A method by which subjects are selected so that two subjects with similar characteristics (for example, weight, smoking habits) are assigned to a set, but one receives Treatment A and the other receives Treatment B.

RNA
Ribonucleic acid. A long-chain, usually single-stranded. The primary function of RNA is protein synthesis within a cell. However, RNA is involved in various ways in the processes of expression and repression of hereditary information. The three main functionally distinct varieties of RNA molecules are: (1) messenger RNA (mRNA) which is involved in the transmission of DNA information, (2) ribosomal RNa (rRNA) which makes up the physical machinery of the synthetic process, and (3) transfer RNA (tRNA) which also constitutes another functional part of the machinery of protein synthesis.

Uracil
A nitrogenous base normally found in RNA but not DNA; uracil is capable of forming a base pair with adenine.



SIMILAR TERMS
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PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Allurative paraphilia
One of a group of paraphilias characterized by triumph wrested developmentally from sexuoerotic tragedy by means of a strategy that incorporates lust into the lovemap on the condition that an invitatory act belonging to the preliminary or proceptive phase be substituted for the copulatory act of the central or acceptive phase, thus ensuring that saintly love be not defiled by sinful lust.

Acute myocardial infarction
This is the medical term for a heart attack. It literally means sudden death of heart muscle. This is normally caused by atherosclerosis. Also called an AMI, Coronary or MI.

ACLS
See Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

Advanced Cardiac Life Support
This is the more advanced skill set used in resuscitating cardiac arrest patients. This set starts with Basic Life Support, and extends it with invasive techniques such as intubation, specialized drugs, IV access and more sophisticated diagnostic techniques. This skill set is practiced out of the hospital by Paramedics and flight nurses, and in the hospital by most critical care personnel. It is also referred to as ALS and ACLS.

AMI
See Acute Myocardial Infarction.

A (adenine)

A baumannii
Acinetobacter baumannii. See Acinetobacter.

A1C
A test that measures how much glucose has been sticking during the past 34 months to hemoglobin, the substance in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells of the body. The A1C test is important in diabetes as a long-term measure of control over blood glucose. Even outside of diabetes, an elevated A1C level may be a cardiovascular risk factor.

AAA
Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

AAAS
Spoken of as the "triple-AS", the American Association for the Advancement of Science is an organization concerned not only with the biomedical sciences but with all of the sciences. The AAAS publishes the weekly journal "Science", one of the great scientific periodicals. "Science" carries a remarkable range of new scientific information including, for example, findings from the Apollo mission to Mars as well as reports from the project to map the human genome.

AAD
American Association of Dermatology, one of many important professional societies in the health arena. The AMA (the American Medical Association) is a better known example in the US. Only a small selection of the many health-related organizations is given as a sampler in this DICTIONARY.

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