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  AAAS



AAAS

    Spoken of as the "triple-AS", the American Association for the Advancement of Science is an organization concerned not only with the biomedical sciences but with all of the sciences. The AAAS publishes the weekly journal "Science", one of the great scientific periodicals. "Science" carries a remarkable range of new scientific information including, for example, findings from the Apollo mission to Mars as well as reports from the project to map the human genome.

RELATED TERMS
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Association
1. In dysmorphology (the study of birth defects), the nonrandom occurrence in two or more individuals of a pattern of multiple anomalies (birth defects) not known to be a malformation syndrome (such as Down syndrome), a malformation sequence (of events) or what is called a polytopic field defect (in which all of the defects are concentrated in one particular area of the body). An example of an association in dysmorphology is the VACTERL association of birth defects. 2. In genetics, the occurrence together of two or more characteristics more often than would be expected by chance alone. An example of association involves a feature on the surface of white blood cells called HLA (HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen). A particular HLA type, HLA type B-27, is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases including ankylosing spondylitis. The extent of the association is enormous. Ankylosing spondylitis is 87 times more likely to occur in people with HLA B-27 than in the general population.

Science
1. A continuous process whose basic purposes are to make phenomena recognizable and to predict outcomes, and whose fundamental activities comprise|(a) observing and describing phenomena and developing general conclusions about them; (b) integrating new data with organized observations that have been confirmed; (c) formulating testable hypotheses based on the results of such integration; (d) testing such hypotheses under controlled, repeatable conditions; (e) observing the results of such testing, recording them unambiguously, and interpreting them clearly; and (f) actively seeking criticism from participants in science. 2. Knowledge from science. 3. A scientific domain (e.g., genetics). 4. Knowledge from a particular scientific domain. 5. Any system or method characterized by the application of scientific principles to practical ends (e.g., culinary science). 6. Any disciplined, systematized area of study. 7. Methodological activity, training, or study. 8. Any activity that ostensibly requires study and method. 9. Knowledge from experience. 10. A developed ability. 11. The state of knowing.

AAAS
Spoken of as the "triple-AS", the American Association for the Advancement of Science is an organization concerned not only with the biomedical sciences but with all of the sciences. The AAAS publishes the weekly journal "Science", one of the great scientific periodicals. "Science" carries a remarkable range of new scientific information including, for example, findings from the Apollo mission to Mars as well as reports from the project to map the human genome.



SIMILAR TERMS
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AMI
See Acute Myocardial Infarction.

A (adenine)
In genetics, A stands for adenine, one member of the A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair in DNA. The other base pair in DNA is G-C (guanine-cytosine). Each base pair forms a "rung of the DNA ladder." A DNA nucleotide is made of a molecule of sugar, a molecule of phosphoric acid, and a molecule called a base. The bases are the "letters" that spell out the genetic code. In DNA, the code letters are A, T, G, and C, which stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In DNA base pairing, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine. Adenine is also one of the bases in RNA. There it always pairs with uracil (U). The base pairs in RNA are therefore A-U and G-C.

A baumannii
Acinetobacter baumannii. See Acinetobacter.

A1C
A test that measures how much glucose has been sticking during the past 34 months to hemoglobin, the substance in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells of the body. The A1C test is important in diabetes as a long-term measure of control over blood glucose. Even outside of diabetes, an elevated A1C level may be a cardiovascular risk factor.

AAA
Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

AAAS

AAD
American Association of Dermatology, one of many important professional societies in the health arena. The AMA (the American Medical Association) is a better known example in the US. Only a small selection of the many health-related organizations is given as a sampler in this DICTIONARY.

Aase-Smith syndrome I
A syndrome of congenital malformations (birth defects) characterized by hydrocephalus, cleft palate, and severe arthrogryposis (joint contractures). Other anomalies may include deformed ears, ptosis (drooping) of the eyelids, inability to open the mouth fully, heart defects, and clubfoot. The fingers are thin with absent knuckles, reduced creases over the joints and inability to make a full fist. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, transmitted from generation to generation, affecting both males and females. It is named for the American dysmorphologists (birth-defect experts) Jon Aase and David W. Smith.

Aase-Smith syndrome II
A genetic disorder that may be detected during early infancy and is characterized by the presence of three bones (phalanges) within the thumbs (triphalangeal thumbs) rather than the normal two and abnormally reduced production of red blood cells (hypoplastic anemia). The exact cause of the syndrome is unknown. However, most evidence suggests that the disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The syndrome is named for the American dysmorphologists (birth-defect experts) Jon Aase and David W. Smith. Alternative names for the syndrome include: Anemia and triphalangeal thumbs Congenital anemia and triphalangeal thumbs Hypoplastic anemia-triphalangeal thumbs, Aase-Smith type.

Ab ovo
Latin expression for "from the beginning." Ab ovo literally means "from the egg."

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