A1C
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  A1C



A1C

    A test that measures how much glucose has been sticking during the past 34 months to hemoglobin, the substance in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells of the body. The A1C test is important in diabetes as a long-term measure of control over blood glucose. Even outside of diabetes, an elevated A1C level may be a cardiovascular risk factor.

RELATED TERMS
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Glucose
The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.

Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a substance contained within the red blood cells and is responsible for their color. It has the unique property of combining reversibly with oxygen and is the medium by which oxygen is transported within the body. It takes up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and releases it as blood passes through the tissues.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Oxygen
A chemical element essential for sustaining life.

Diabetes
A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas type 2 diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin.

Cardiovascular
Of, relating to, or involving the heart and the blood vessels.

Risk
In clinical trials, the probability of harm or discomfort for subjects, arising from the test product. Acceptable risk differs depending on the condition for which a product is being tested. A product for sore throat, for example, will be expected to have a low incidence of side effects. However, unpleasant side effects may be an acceptable risk when testing a promising treatment for a life-threatening illness.



SIMILAR TERMS
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PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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ACLS
See Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

Advanced Cardiac Life Support
This is the more advanced skill set used in resuscitating cardiac arrest patients. This set starts with Basic Life Support, and extends it with invasive techniques such as intubation, specialized drugs, IV access and more sophisticated diagnostic techniques. This skill set is practiced out of the hospital by Paramedics and flight nurses, and in the hospital by most critical care personnel. It is also referred to as ALS and ACLS.

AMI
See Acute Myocardial Infarction.

A (adenine)
In genetics, A stands for adenine, one member of the A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair in DNA. The other base pair in DNA is G-C (guanine-cytosine). Each base pair forms a "rung of the DNA ladder." A DNA nucleotide is made of a molecule of sugar, a molecule of phosphoric acid, and a molecule called a base. The bases are the "letters" that spell out the genetic code. In DNA, the code letters are A, T, G, and C, which stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In DNA base pairing, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine. Adenine is also one of the bases in RNA. There it always pairs with uracil (U). The base pairs in RNA are therefore A-U and G-C.

A baumannii
Acinetobacter baumannii. See Acinetobacter.

A1C

AAA
Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

AAAS
Spoken of as the "triple-AS", the American Association for the Advancement of Science is an organization concerned not only with the biomedical sciences but with all of the sciences. The AAAS publishes the weekly journal "Science", one of the great scientific periodicals. "Science" carries a remarkable range of new scientific information including, for example, findings from the Apollo mission to Mars as well as reports from the project to map the human genome.

AAD
American Association of Dermatology, one of many important professional societies in the health arena. The AMA (the American Medical Association) is a better known example in the US. Only a small selection of the many health-related organizations is given as a sampler in this DICTIONARY.

Aase-Smith syndrome I
A syndrome of congenital malformations (birth defects) characterized by hydrocephalus, cleft palate, and severe arthrogryposis (joint contractures). Other anomalies may include deformed ears, ptosis (drooping) of the eyelids, inability to open the mouth fully, heart defects, and clubfoot. The fingers are thin with absent knuckles, reduced creases over the joints and inability to make a full fist. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, transmitted from generation to generation, affecting both males and females. It is named for the American dysmorphologists (birth-defect experts) Jon Aase and David W. Smith.

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